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E-mail me: watkins@lehigh.edu

Lehigh University College of Business & Economics
Rauch Business Center #37
Bethlehem, PA 18015 

(610) 758-4954

(610) 758-4677

Todd A. Watkins

Selected Papers

"In From the Cold: Prospects for Conversion of the Defense Industrial Base," with Maryellen R. Kelley, Science 268, 28 April, 1995.

"The Myth of the Specialized Defense Contractor," with Maryellen R. Kelley, Technology Review, V. 98(3), April, 1995.

Applied Semiconductor Research in Europe,” in Global Access to Applied Research: Implications for the Semiconductor Industry, Center for Trade & Commercial Diplomacy, Monterey Institute of International Studies, March 1997.

Are Defense and Non-Defense Manufacturing Industries Really all That Different?”, with Maryellen R. Kelley, in Gerald I. Susman & Sean O’Keefe, eds., The Defense Industry in the Post-Cold War Era: Corporate Strategies and Public Policy Perspectives, Pergamon, 1998.

"Dual-Use Supplier Management and Strategic International Sourcing in Aircraft Manufacturing," in Trends and Challenges in Aerospace Offsets, Charles Wessner, ed., National Academy Press, Washington D.C., 1999.

"Manufacturing Scale, Lot Sizes and Product Complexity in Defense and Commercial Manufacturing," with Maryellen R. Kelley, Defence & Peace Economics 12(3), 2001.

"The Effects of Commercial Offsets on Aerospace Subcontractors," in Status Report of the Presidential Commission on Offsets in International Trade, Executive Office of the President, Washington, DC, January 2001.

"Extending Case Study Methodologies for Technology Policy Evaluation," in The Advanced Technology Program: Assessing Outcomes, Charles Wessner, ed., National Academy of Sciences, National Academy Press, Washington D.C, 2001.

American Practitioners’ Views of Technology Management in European High Technology Organizations, Todd A. Watkins, contributing ed., National Technological University, Fort Collins, CO, May 2001.

Problems Typical of the Case-Study Approach to Technology Impact Assessment and Techniques of Overcoming Them,” in Benchmarking Evaluation of Public Science And Technology Programs In The United States, Canada, Israel, And Finland, Proceedings, Tekes—National Technology Agency Of Finland, Embassy Of Finland, Washington DC, September 25, 2002, TEKES Reports of R&D Impacts, January 15, 2003.

Management of Technology in Europe 2003: Comparing Strategies and Tools in 17 High Technology Organizations, with Dominic Busher, et al, Todd A. Watkins, contributing ed., National Technological University, Mineapolis, MN, May 2003.

"A Test for R&D Complementarities in Bio-Pharmaceutical and Software Industries Using R&D Tax Price Changes," with
Lolita Paff, Health and Bio-Pharmaceutical Working Paper Series 2004-1, Martindale Center, Lehigh University, February 2004.

The Effect of Human Resource Practices on Quit Rates,” with Thomas Hyclak, Business and Economics Working Paper Series, 2005-1, Martindale Center, Lehigh University, April 2005.

Innovation Facilitators and Accelerators for Aeronautics,” principal author (unattributed), Chapter 2 of Aeronautics Innovation: NASA’s Challenges and Opportunities, Stephen A. Merrill, ed., Committee on Innovation Models for Aerospace Technologies, Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy, National Research Council of The National Academies, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2006.

Glide Path to Irrelevance: Federal Funding for Aeronautics,” with Alan Schriesheim and Stephen Merrill, Issues in Science and Technology 23(1) 69-78, Fall 2006.

Direct and Spillover Effects of ATP-Funded Photonics Technologies, with Theodore W. Schlie, NIST GCR06-893, Economic Assessment Office, Advanced Technology Program, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Technology Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington DC, December 2006.

Do Workforce and Organizational Practices Explain the Manufacturing Technology Implementation Advantage of Small Defense Contractors over Non-Defense Firms?” Defence and Peace Economics 18(4) 2007.  [Earlier conference paper draft version here.]

What is the After-Tax Price of R&D? An Inter-State Comparison,” with Lolita Paff, Fiscal Studies 30(1) 2009.

Absorptive Capacity and R&D Tax Policy: Are In-house and External Contract R&D Substitutes or Complements?” with Lolita A. Paff, Small Business Economics, 2009.

Papers on Curriculum Issues

Can Students in Technology Entrepreneurship Courses Help Foster Start-ups by the Unemployed?” with M. Jean Russo and John B. Ochs. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development 15(2), 2008.

A Comprehensive Model for Integrating Entrepreneurship Education and Capstone Projects while Meeting ABET Requirements,” with John B. Ochs, Gerard P Lennon and Graham Mitchell, Proceedings of the 2006 American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exposition, Chicago, June 2006.

A Seven Step Program to Teaching Creatively,” Lehigh Lab Notes 3(1), February 2006.

Program and Student Performance Assessment in Team-Based Project Courses with Focus on Technical Entrepreneurship and Product Development,” with Lisa Getzler-Linn and John B. Ochs, USABE/SBI 2006 Joint Conference Proceedings, Tucson, Arizona, January 12-15, 2006, US Association for Small Business and Entrepreneurship/Small Business Institute. [Extended version]

Integration of Lehigh’s Entrepreneurship Minor into the Undergraduate Engineering Curricula,” with John B. Ochs and Graham Mitchell, Proceedings of the 2005 American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exposition, Portland, Oregon, June 2005.

Integrating Engineering, Design Arts and Entrepreneurship Education through New Product Development Projects” (paper and poster), with John B. Ochs and Anna Chupa, Proceedings of the PACE 2005 Annual Forum, Mexico City, July27-29, 2005.

Can Students Help Entrepreneurs? An Evaluation of Linking Academic Technology Entrepreneurship Courses With Dislocated and New Entrant Workers to Foster Start-ups,” with M. Jean Russo and John B. Ochs, 12th Annual EDINEB International Conference, Innovating the Dynamics of Organizing Learning in Business and Business Education, Antwerp, Belgium, June 15-17, 2005

Lehigh’s Entrepreneurial Network (LEN) of Alumni: Resources for Student Entrepreneurs,” with John B. Ochs, Proceedings of the 2004 American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exposition, Salt Lake City, Utah, June 2004.

"Leveraging What Freshmen Don’t Know: Product Development in an Integrated Business & Engineering Freshman Workshop," Todd A. Watkins, John B. Ochs, & Drew M. Snyder, Proceedings of the American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exposition, 2003.

A Case Study in Assessing Team-Based Project Courses: Lehigh University’s IPD Program,” with John B. Ochs, Drew M. Snyder, Jean Russo and Lisa-Getzler-Linn, Proceedings of the 2004 American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exposition, Salt Lake City, Utah, June 2004.

"Lessons Learned in Building Cross-Disciplinary Partnerships in Entrepreneurship Education through Integrated Product Development (IPD)," John B. Ochs, Todd A. Watkins & Drew M. Snyder, Proceedings of the American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exposition, 2003. 

"Creating a Truly Multi-Disciplinary Entrepreneurial Educational Environment," John B. Ochs, Todd A. Watkins & Berrisford W. Boothe.  Revised version in Journal of Engineering Education, 90(4) 2001.

"Integrating Community and Curriculum: An Evaluation of Lehigh University's Community Research & Policy Service (Lehigh CORPS)," with Thomas J. Hyclak, 2000. 

Learning Across Functional Silos: Lehigh University’s Integrated Product Development Program,” with John B. Ochs, Berrisford W. Boothe and Heather Beam, 1998.


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Lehigh University, 621 Taylor Street, Rauch Business Center, Bethlehem, Pa. 18015