Curriculum in a Global Society
Education 470
Collective Bibliography
Spring 2002
Authors A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

How Might this Bibliography Be Used?

The sources found here represent the critical reading of the students enrolled in Dr. Daphne Hobson's class, Curriculum Design in a Global Society, an online course offered Spring 2002 by the International Program in the College of Education at Lehigh University.  The exchange of ideas and experiences are represented here as well as in the online discussion board, a part of the course experience for the students, educators living in several  different countries on four continents.

District Approaches to Education Reform. The Laboratory Network Program's Curriculum, Learning, and Instruction Project. (2000). Aurora CO: Mid-Continent Regional Educational Laboratory.  (ED451602)

This report presents findings from a study that was designed to examine policy regarding implementing curriculum reform across the nation at the state, district, and school levels. One of the districts has a large proportion of English Language Learners; two have populations of highly mobile  students from families of migrant workers; and two have populations of students from families with incomes below the national poverty level.  The report paints a picture of how district responses to state policies determines the direction and success of reform.  (DB)
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The Jossey-Bass Reader on School Reform.  The Jossey-Bass EducationSeries. (2001). Jossey-Bass.

This anthology is intended to serve as an introduction to some of the big issues that shaped and continue to shape policy, practice, and debate over public schooling.  Perspectives on these issues are presented in 32 chapters.  Though it is a little long (537 pages),  I think it is a great resource for busy professionals. Expert contributors debate controversial issues such as school choice, desegregation, bilingual education, school finance, and student needs.  (DB)
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Abiko, T. (2002). Developmental Stages and Curriculum: A Japanese Perspective. Journal of Curriculum and Supervision, 17(2), 160-170.

 In this article the author puts forth a new theory of development stages based on children's shifting interests, called Shifting Interest Center Theory.  The theory holds that, "in the course of growth, a child's interest center moves from a focus on skills and repetition, through phases of language development, memorization, and imitation, then to general concepts and logical or critical thinking, then to self-searching and self-development, and finally to self-realization."  In consideration of this theory the author suggests school's curriculums change to accommodate differing emphases at different stages of development.  This article is good in that it offers additional considerations for curriculum design in light of developmental stages and addresses the learning theories of Piaget and Vygostsky in support of itself.  (JB)  Fairchild-Martindale Library FM-3-SOUTH 370.5 J8653

Apelman, M. (1986). Working With Teachers: The Advisory Approach.  In K. K. Zumwalt (Ed.), Improving Teaching (pp. 115-129). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

This article is a narrative of the author's observation of two kindergarten teachers. Based on her experiences as a teacher advisor, she believes that "the success of advisory work depends on a relationship of mutual trust and respect that develops gradually as teachers and advisors work and learn together through their attempt to solve the problems of daily teaching." She advocates networking, journal writing, classroom visitation, reflection and analysis to sustain professional growth throughout one's career. I was very much impressed with the non-evaluative style of this teacher advisor and her encouragement of teachers to think for themselves. (AML)
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Ardizzone, L. (2001). Towards Global Understanding:  The Transformative Role of Peace Education. Current Issues in Comparative Education [Online] 4(1).  Available at: [7/31/02]

Ardizzone begins the article by claiming that education for democracy is actually education for "the creation of a culture of peace", and that the concepts of peace, democracy, and human rights should be included in education's fundamental goals.  The author presents a historical perspective on education and discusses global support and international applications of education for peace.  Ardizzone calls for local educators to create global awareness in the classroom and to assist students in critically understanding their own situations within the worldview.  While I know that teachers can make a difference in teaching tolerance and peace in the classroom, I think it has to start in the home.  It's probably almost too late if it's not learned until school-age.  (MP)

Atkin, J. M. (1998). The OECD Study of Innovations in Science, Math, and Technology Education. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 30(6), 647-666.

This comprehensive study undertaken by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) investigated how member countries instituted change in science, math, and technology education.  Several common curricular themes were highlighted. These included an emphasis on integration across subject areas and use of practical curriculum.  Differences focused on the reasons driving curricular reform.  Technological focus was not strictly on introduction to technological devices but on the creation of situations where technology could be used adapting to human demand.  This article was interesting because it underscored the importance of aligning instructional materials, practice and assessment when instituting curriculum reform. (AM)
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Banks, J. (2000). The social construction of difference and the quest for educational equality. In R. S. Brandt (Ed.), Education in a New Era (pp. 21-45). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

This article analyzes many of the issues that have hindered the development of  "educational equality" in America's school systems over the past 40 years.  It addresses the historical context of each issue, their implementation in light of their impact on the population, and brief research regarding their success or failure in the educational system.  The author further offers suggestions for schools of the future in light of the research surrounding multicultural education.  This is an excellent article for obtaining a basic understanding of the issues surrounding multicultural education, and the support for its implementation into school systems. (JB)
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Banks, J. A. (1993). Multicultural education: development, dimensions, and challenges. Phi Delta Kappan, 75(1), 22-28.

Banks identifies myths associated with multicultural education and provides appropriate rebuttal to the claims.  He highlights the progress that multicultural education has made, especially in the area of textbook transformation.  He concludes by defining dimensions of multicultural education and its future.  The article is an excellent of multiculturalism as defined by Banks.  (AS)
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Barnes, D. (1998). And then there were three...IB programmes, that is... International Schools Journal, 18(1), 44-49.

This article gives an overview of the Primary Years Program (PYP) and Middle Years Program (MYP) of the International Baccalaureate.  Barnes discusses critical issues of each curriculum, highlighting both differences and similarities.  He considers transdisciplinary cooperation, holistic learning, assessment procedures and the goal of "internationalism."  He concludes that the IBO should try to get more feedback from former IB students to shape the future direction of the PYP, MYP and IB Diploma.   (JN)
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Barnes, M., Clark, David, and Stephens, Max. (2000). Assessment: the Engine of Systemic Curriculum Reform? Journal of Curriculum Studies, 32(5), 623-650.

The authors in this article examine the assumption that assessments can drive curriculum reform.  The first look at the results of previous studies that examine the function of 'high-stakes' assessment.  They explore the concept of alignment and focus on the area of mathematics in the states of New South Wales and Victoria in Australia.  The findings empirically support the assumption that change in assessment can provide impetus for curricular reform.  This article is interesting because the role of external assessments is a current topic that portends to have an impact on the educational system.  (AM)
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Barta, J. (1996). Involving parents in creating anti-bias classrooms. Children Today, 24, 28-30.

Barta's article identifies the limitations of multicultural education in removing bias from society.  His solution involves greater input by parents.  Several suggestions are made for achieving this symbiotic relationship.  All of the recommendations are good, however, most are not practical in sense of time requirements from an already overbooked society. (AS)
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Bartlett, K. (1996). Articulating the International Curriculum. International Schools Journal, 26(1), 30-38.

International schools serving both host country nationals and expatriate ("global nomad") families have been developing curricula with for a global society for the past half century.  This article gives a brief history of the International Schools Curriculum Project which represents the first comprehensive effort at collaboration among a large number of international schools, and which has resulted in the International Baccalaureate Diploma (gr.11-12), Middle Years Program (gr. 6-10) and Primary Years Program (gr. K-5).  The three programs function separately but are aligned philosophically and represent an exciting movement towards holistic, global interdisciplinary education. More information is available at  (JN)
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Berliner, D. C. B., B.J. (2002). Small class size and its effects. Educational Leadership, 59(5), 12-23.

The article brings the reader through the recent research history on class size.  Studies such as the Tennessee's Project STAR, Wisconsin's SAGE Program, and the California Class Size Reduction Program are compared and contrasted giving ammunition to the lobbyists for educational reform.  The California program is highlighted for its "near text-book case of how a state should not reduce class size; pointing out that small class size is not the panacea for education.  However, with the California fiasco and the other more promising research studies data supports the reduction in class size in order to increase student achievement. Smaller classes have a positive affect in subsequent years with those same students experiencing success and higher achievement scores in their progression through school. (RD)
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Black, J. B., Thalheimer W., Wilder, H. de Soto, D. (1994). Constructivist Design of Graphic Computer Simulations Proceedings of Selected Research and Development Presentations at the 1994 National Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology Sponsored by the Research and Theory Division (16th, Nashville, TN, February 16-20, 1994) ed.): Teacher's College Press.

This paper explains the framework of six interrelated principles for constructivists versions guiding the design of instructional educational systems.  The six principles of the constructive design are: students generate the knowledge, authentic situations and activities, cognitive apprenticeship methods, multiple contexts, cognitive flexibility, and student collaboration.  Through field testing it has been proven that this approach will reach students who are otherwise unenthusiastic about participating in the learning process in the classroom. (AT)
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Bohn, A. P. S., C. E. (2001). Will Multicultural Education Survive the Standards Movement? Education Digest, 66, 17-24.

This article deals with recent research findings that indicate that multiculturalism is taking a back seat to the standardization of school curriculums.  The authors express their concerns with the findings and indicate that the standardization of the curriculum in schools could negatively affect the recent gains in creating well-rounded culturally aware students. As the authors see it, standardizing outputs tends to lead to the standardization of inputs (ie. The way information is presented, or the sources used for the gathering of information), something which negatively affects minority students. Use of a multicultural group of teachers can allow students of minority groups, particularly, to feel a sense of belonging to the educational process. It is a very interesting and concise article.  (LM)
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Borja, R. R. (2002, April 24, 2002). 'Global Action Week'  Puts Spotlight on Education of Poor. Education Week, pp. 12.

Article discusses the various global activities scheduled to take place this week worldwide to raise global awareness regarding free public education for all children.  The Global Campaign for Education (GCE) is a coalition of trade unions, development agencies, and education community groups based in Brussels, Belgium. An estimated one-fifth of the elementary-age children worldwide - approximately 125 million  - are not attending school.  The NEA and AFT feel that it is the responsibility of rich nations such as the United States to help make free public education a reality worldwide. (DGM)
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Bosco, J. (2002). Benchmark Your Technology Know-How:  A look behind the making of the Technology Standards for School Administrators (TSSA) project. Scholastic Administrator, 1, 53-55.

The TSSA initiative has forged a national consensus on what school administrators should know about and be able to do to ensure district wide technology leadership.  The project is being led by a collaboration of 13 education groups and 21 other participating organizations.  The suggestions of this group will play an important role in the implementation of standards.  The following are the areas that the standards for administrators focus on: 1. Leadership and Vision 2. Learning and Teaching 3. Productivity and Professional Practice 4. Support,  Management, and Operations  5. Assessment and Evaluation  6. Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues.  (DGM)
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Boyer, E. (1995). Making Thematic Connections Through Human Commonalities. North Texas Institute for Educators on the Visual Arts, 6(3)        .

This article addresses Ernest Boyer's belief that "true multicultural education is that which affirms the sacredness of the individual while recognizing the universal natures of all peoples".  He feels that a curriculum based on eight "human commonalities" will enhance learning.  These "human commonalities" are:  1) All of us experience cycles of life, 2) All of us develop symbols), 3) All of us respond to the aesthetic, 4) All of us have the capacity to recall the past and anticipate the future, 5) All of us develop some forms of social bonding, 6) All of us are connected to the ecology of the planet, 7) All of us produce and consumer), and 8) All of us seek meaning the purpose. (PM)
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Brantlinger, E. (1995). Social Class in School: Students' Perspectives. Research Bulletin (Phi Delta Kappa Center for Evaluation, Development, and Research)14          .

 In this article, Brantlinger explains the results of an investigation conducted on children of varying socio-economic classes in a Midwestern town.  Students of high, medium and low socio-economic backgrounds were researched to determine their perceptions of themselves and those of other socio-economic backgrounds as they relate to learning, relationships with teachers, opportunities provided, etc.  The results indicated that children of lower classes tend to have a more negative impression of their own abilities, and children of higher class have more opportunities, more success and more self-confidence in school. This is a very interesting article that brings home the differences in the educational experiences in the same institutions. Despite the idea of equal opportunity, it seems, the social background of students, and the tag that this brings with it, has a major effect on their own perception of success and expectations. Discrimination can be subtle and often overlooked. A very interesting article on a controversial and important issue.   (LM)
Retrieved on March 17, 2002 from
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Brockett, D. (2000, 9/25/01). Cyber schools' offer public education at home. School Board News, pp. 1-4.  ????

Brockett discusses the positive aspects of distance learning in public education.  Some of the following advantages are noted:  the ability to work at an individual pace for more difficult courses, asynchronous time schedules to allow athletes to complete work outside of the school day, gifted students in isolated geographical areas ability to access larger and more diverse course offerings of the urban and suburban centers.  Cyber schools also benefit home-schooled students, independent learners, and GED candidates.  The emphasis is on collaboration and an increase of one-to-one interaction between the teacher and student was a primary focus. (DGM)
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Burger, C. J. (2002). Helping girls take a byte out of technology. Principal, 81(3), 42-43.

This article brings out some of the deficiencies concerning computer education or lack there of.  Burger writes girls are intimidated and see the computer technology field as a   boys career choice.  She gives some suggestions in order to enhance a girl's interest in the world of computer technology.  For instance, paying attention to parents' attitudes toward science and technology can affect how girls may perceive their potential in this area of study.  Do not let the parents sell their daughter short by inferring girls are not cut out for this career choice.  Demonstrate the positive impact of science and technology on society.  Give the girls mentors in research facilities, local universities, and corporations to prove women can have a successful career in this field.  I do think the article did slight the intellectual aptitude of girls by insinuating they need to have computers taught in a socializing and sharing manner since girls learn better using this teaching style. (RD)
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Catania, P. (2001). The Urban Principalship:  Making a Difference. Principal, 81(1), 14-16.

The author discusses how and why urban students are different from the suburban counterparts.  He also speaks to the need to build strong relationships with students, families, and communities.  These connections help to make urban students feel connected and contributing.  We must provide an environment for these students that make them feel safe, respected and valued both as students and as human beings. (DGM)
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Chirichello, M. (2001). Collective Leadership:  Sharing the Principalship. Principal, 81(1), 46-51.

The author attempts to answer the following three critical questions with regard to resolving the principal shortage crisis: What kind of principals do we need? Where do we find them? How do we prepare them to lead? He believes that the key to accomplishing this task is through shared leadership.  He references the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) Standards:  A Model for Collective Leadership: 1. Facilitating the development, articulation, implementation, and stewardship of a vision of learning that is shared and supported by the school community;  2. Advocating, nurturing, and sustaining a school culture and instructional program conducive to student learning and staff professional growth;3. Ensuring management of the organization, operations, and resources for a safe, efficient, and effective learning environment; 4. Collaborating with families and community members, responding to diverse community interests and needs, and mobilizing community resources; 5. Acting with integrity, fairness, and in an ethical manner; and 6. Understanding, responding to, and influencing the larger political, social, economic, legal, and cultural context.  (DGM)
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Clarke, M. M., Madaus, George F., Horn, Catherine L., Ramos, Miguel A. (2000). Retrospective on Educational Testing and Assessment in the 20th Century. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 32(2), 159-181.

The authors of this article examine the growth in the use of standardized commercial tests as a method of measuring academic achievement of U.S. students.   They look at technical developments, specifically the increase in computer technology.   They note five indirect indicators of  growth.  The authors conclude that most of the changes in test making have been in the areas of efficiency, management, and cost.  They recommend that a mechanism be put in place to ensure that standardized tests are both educationally sound and used appropriately.  I think that the authors recommendation is sound particularly with the heavy emphasis placed on high stakes testing today.  (AM)
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Cotton, K. (2001). Research You Can Use To Improve Results. Update of Section 3. Program Report (ED456113). Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory.

This document presents research intended to help teachers and administrators improve the quality of instruction. It addresses findings at the classroom, school and district levels. Each of the three sections provides a listing of key references.  This in itself is a great resource (contains approximately 370 bibliographic references).  (DB)
 Available from the Libraries' E*Subscribe subscription (ED456113)

Cushman, K. (1999). How small schools increase student learning. Principal, 79, 20-22.

The author cites research such as a 1996 study by Cotton which synthesized 103 other studies, all of which show evidence that smaller schools (defined as 400 or less for elementary) have lower rates of truancy, classroom disruption, vandalism, theft, and gang participation than larger schools. At the same time these schools have higher academic achievement as measured by grades, test scores, honor roll membership, and assessment of higher-order thinking skills. She illustrates an example from a North Philadelphia school where a larger school (900 students) was sub-divided into three smaller units, with a subsequent rise in success indicators.  (RR)
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Davis, G. A. J., A.W. (2000). Curriculum and Assessment to Improve Teaching and Learning, Turning Points 2000:  Educating Adolescents in the 21st Century (pp. 31-61). New York: Teachers College Press.

Section focuses on essential questions to be answered in order for every curriculum to be both efficient and effective.  It highlights major understanding of each discipline as well as being culturally relevant to diverse populations.  These essential questions should drive the formation of units of study. (DGM)
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Davis, O. L. (2002). Today's Educational Situation: Which? Whose? Why? What Possible Consequences? Journal of Curriculum and Supervision, 17(2), 95-99.

This editorial from the Journal of Curriculum and Supervision relates the present situation of American education to the situation of the turn of the century presented by John Dewey in three essays he wrote. Davis cautions the reader to beware of those who feel that the re-assessing of the educational situation is redundant and points out that, "serious consideration of the educational situation, therefore, cannot be a 'once and forever' enterprise". Davis makes a solid case for the differences since the time of Dewey in current American reality, but states that there is a far greater connection to what Dewey stated than perhaps meets the eye.  He insists that, in determining the present state of education, one must first determine the basics: the form of education (which) and the organizations behind education (who). Finally, Davis states that the understanding of the current "educational situation" is not solely the job of the educational professional, but rather a concerted effort by all members of the communities that education serves. Finally, he states that the process should be continual, and that "reflective educational practice and research can be joined in deliberations about the educational situation and toward action for the benefit of American education".  It is an article that brings to light the changing curricular and educational needs of students and fosters an understanding of the forces that mould education, past and present. As such it is both interesting and promotes questioning of the educational situation and where it is headed.   (LM)
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Dimmock, C.,  Lee, J. (2000). Redesigning School-Based Curriculum Leadership: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. Journal of Curriculum and Supervision, 15(4), 332-358.

 This article addresses the fact that many school systems worldwide have undergone considerable curriculum reform and a restructuring of school management and governance over the past 20 years, yet few movements have taken into concern both issues with consideration for the other.  The authors suggest first designing the new curriculum and then "backward mapping" the shape and form of the leadership, management, and organizational structures.  In this manner all cultures and societies will produce a more holistically designed school that may follow implementation paths specific for their "environments, needs, customs, and culturally accepted practices."  This article sheds light on alternative influences that must be acknowledged prior to the implementation of new curriculum and/or school managerial structures. (JB)
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Ediger, M. (2001). Assessing Recent Theories of Student Learning (ED451208).

Noting that theories of student learning have changed how education is viewed by educators and the public, the author provides a fairly concise  overview of the constructivist view of learning and assessment of instructional objectives.  (DB)
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Education, U. S. Department of (2002). No Child Left Behind Act of 2001: Reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act [Online].On January 8, 2002, President Bush signed into law the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. It redefines the federal role in K-12 education. It is supposed to help close the achievement gap between disadvantaged and minority students and their peers. It is based on four basic principles: stronger accountability for results, increased flexibility and local control, expanded options for parents, and an emphasis on teaching methods that have been proven to work.  (SB)
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Eisner, E. W. (2001). What does it mean to say a school is doing well? Phi Delta Kappan, 82(5), 367-372.

Eisner discusses America's obsession with standardized test scores and proposes a moratorium on standardized testing.  Under such a ban what questions would we ask to determine whether or not a school was doing well?  He makes several excellent suggestions.  This is a "must read" article for anyone looking for creative ways to measure schools success. (SM)
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Frymier, J., Cunningham, L., Duckett, W., Gansneder, B., Link, F., & Rimmer, J.S. (1996). Values and the Schools: Sixty Years Ago and Now. Phi Delta Kappan, 17, 1-7.

The authors studied the correlation between values during the pre-WWII era and today.  They took a series of questions regarding both democratic and authoritarian values used in the original study, added a few new ones, and then performed the study again.  The results were a common set of values such as honesty, responsibility, freedom of speech, courtesy, and tolerance; that home has the largest influence in the development of values; and students' values are generally more important than what adults perceive.  This article was interesting because values or lack of them in our society and schools is an important topic today.  It demonstrated that they are important and also made the point that not everything changes with the passing of time.  (NW)
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Garcis, J. (1993). The changing image of ethnic groups in textbooks. Phi Delta Kappan, 75(1), 29-35.

Garcis provides a brief historical perspective of the image of ethnic groups in textbooks.  He then highlights the civil rights movement as a watershed for change that was assisted by pressure groups that impacted the publishing industry.  Finally he asks questions that are important to continuing the process of change in textbooks, and the realization that textbook change is only a small part of correcting the problem.  The article provides an accurate historical look at textbook changes and provides excellent theoretical questions for continuing change. (SA)
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Garrett, A. (1997). Computers, Curriculum, and Classrooms: Panacea or Patent Medicine? Journal of Curriculum and Supervision, 13(1), 114-118.

The author of this article questions the efficacy of computers and technology in the classroom.  Too often, he claims, decisions regarding instructional hardware and software take precedence over sound curriculum decisions.  In such manner schools may be seeking the easy technological solution to a myriad of problems rather than providing the best education possible.  Additionally, monies that are needed to keep up with the latest technological advances are being depleted from other needs such as proven programs and teacher development.  The authors greatest fear seems to be that computer technology, unless taught with appropriate curriculum, may be the latest in a series of short-lived education fads.  This short article offers a reminding counter perspective to the advocates for increased classroom technology, although it presents little if any research to support its argument.  (JB)
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Gay, S. (1999). Is problem solving in middle school mathematics "normal"? Middle School Journal 31 (1), 41-47.

The author reports on a study conducted to examine beliefs and attitudes of middle school students in 7th and 8th grade towards problem solving in mathematics. Students surveyed comprise approximately 870 students from 19 different schools in 10 districts in northeast Kansas. Schools were in rural, suburban, and small rural communities. Findings include that overall feelings among boys were 50% positive, 40% negative, and 10% neutral, while for girls they were 55% positive, 35% negative, and 10% neutral. This article is interesting, yet has little practical application. (RR)
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Gibbs, T. H., A. (2000). "World-Class Standards" and Local Pedagogies:  Can We Do Both? (ED448014). Charleston, WV: ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools.

Gibbs and Howley examine rural educators' growing movement to ground school curriculum in the local vernacular as a means of returning students to their communities after graduation.  They compare this "place-based" pedagogy with the standards movement and the call for globalized education.  "Place-based" education advocates see the importance of "connecting academic content to the real-world experiences of students" and believe the all children can benefit from a contextualized education. (PM)
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Guiney, E. (2001). Coaching Isn't Just For Athletes: The Role of Teacher Leaders. Phi Delta Kappan, 82(10) 740-743.

This article describes a new program, utilizing "change and content coaches", instituted by the Boston Public Schools.  The Boston school system, utilizing the expertise of outside experts (mostly ex teachers), "created a new kind of professional development that integrates teachers' learning with teachers' practice, gives participants ongoing feedback, and makes these activities a whole-school, collegial endeavor."  This program seems to be a different approach to standardization in public education. According to Guiney "it's clear that, under the guidance of coaches, many teachers are adopting new strategies that appear to be resulting in improved student learning."  This success seems to come from the collegiality that exists and the building of trust between the coaches and the teachers involved. Guiney also specifically describes the situations of Brighton High School and Shaw Middle School, case studies indicating the way in which not only the student performance has increased, in some cases dramatically, but also in the way this program has helped generate a very positive atmosphere within the schools themselves. Toward the end of the article Guiney discusses the difficulties that face this program, despite its success. Problems seem to be identified in the original plan to phase out the coaching program after just two years, but also there has been questioning of the amount of time coaches are utilized (is it enough time spent with teachers?).  It would seem, according to the information provided, that the Boston Public Schools have stumbled into something that is so successful that it might pinch their budget more than they had expected.  Finally, an article with a positive message that seems to be both practical and, by all accounts, a very good idea. (LM)
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Haakenson, P. (1994). Recent Trends in Global/International Education. Bloomington, IN: ERIC Clearinghouse for Social Studies/Social Science Education.  ED373021

Haakenson reviews various programs and studies for educating elementary school age programs that are teaching global awareness, including the Association for Supervision and Curriculum  Development Global Education Framework.  He refers to the development of standards for global/international education and notes that teacher education is key in advancing this education.  Haakenson is enthusiastic about technology's place in global education, citing the involvement of students in international projects via email, foreign policy simulations and literature discussions. (MP)
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Hargreaves, A. M., S. (2000). Curriculum Integration and Classroom Relevance: A Study of Teacher's Practice. Journal of Curriculum and Supervision, 15(2), 113 - 122.

This article presents a study that analyzed  "the relationship between curriculum integration and classroom relevance" for a group of 7th and 8th grade teachers in Ontario, Canada.  The results indicate that although proper curriculum integration is more difficult and rigorous to organize, the end result is an increase in student's  "use of  higher-order thinking skills,  exercise of problem-solving capacities, application of knowledge to real problems, valuing of creativity and invention, embedding of learning in real time and real life, and the importance of learning collaboratively as well as individually."  This article offers conclusive evidence that integrated curriculums do improve student learning, and additionally are good tools for enhancing "interpersonal empathy and international understanding." (JB)
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Hayden, M., & Thompson, J. (Eds.). (2000). International Schools & International Education. London: Kogan Page.

In this book, a wide array of authors address concerns centered around building quality into the process of international education in both international and national schools.  To borrow from the jacket, key issues covered include improving quality through the curriculum, through people, and through management and organization.  While I have not read the entire book yet, what I have read is rather interesting.  It is quite readable and provides a good overview of the issues confronting the field. (DB)
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Hirsch Jr., E. D. (2001). Seeking Breadth and Depth in the Curriculum. Educational Leadership 59(2), 22-25.

Hirsch discusses four principles developed by the Core Knowledge Foundation and the relevance to "learning to learn" with the premise of gaining a broad foundational knowledge as a springboard for students upon entering the next level of learning. Hirsch stresses that not just any knowledge will be sufficient but that choosing the content through the four principles is of utmost importance in order to provide the broad general knowledge in a diversity of subjects leading to some depth in a moderate number of specific subjects. Hirsch has postulated what the "elite" knowledge is for every citizen in a democracy, however, he also supports this foundational core curriculum as a way to enhance student achievement and narrow the test score gap between socioeconomic groups.  I would argue that this is an approach to 'teach to the test' without regard to useful, practical and developmentally appropriate information vital for young students. Any well-aligned curriculum must lead incrementally from one year to the next.  (AT)
Fairchild-Martindale Library FM-3-SOUTH 370.5 E244

Hogan, R., Murphy, G.J., Hogan, J. (1994). What we know about leadership. Effectiveness and personality. In L. Orozco (Ed.), Educational Leadership Perspectives (pp. 32-45). Madison, WI: Coursewise Publishing.

This article is likely the most informative article on educational leadership I have read thus far.  The article answers nine questions about how to identify and evaluate leadership.  The authors attempt to reduce the gap between researchers and the reader.  One essential factor in which leaders should be held accountable but is often overlooked is effectiveness of leadership.  On many occasions, focus is on typical leadership behaviors instead of effectiveness. Other questions posed are how leaders are chosen, how a leader should be evaluated, and why we choose so many flawed leaders.  (RD)
Fairchild-Martindale Library-not held

Holland, H., Kelly, M (2000). Mathematics in motion. Middle ground, 3, 35-40.

This is one article in a series of three within this volume of the magazine putting the "Spotlight on Mathematics." The authors of this article, as well as the other related articles, offer examples of math problems and units based on the NCTM standards. The lessons provide real-life situations, group work, and simulations of airfields, ballparks, casinos, and hospitals. These are practical, applicable examples of effective middle school math lessons. (RR)
Fairchild-Martindale Library ľnot held

Holt, M. (2001, December 2001). Performance Pay for Teachers: The Standards Movement's Last Stand? Phi Delta Kappan, 83(4) 312-317.

 In this article Holt challenges the new government ideas of performance pay for teachers. Holt indicates that such a move would be detrimental to the whole educational system as it would force teachers to move away from whole learning process and make the teachers mere transferors of information to students who, rather than being shown how to learn, would have to be shown how to do well on a test (the measuring device of standards). This whole movement, notes Holt, will only result in a complete conformity of teaching methods, eliminating individualism or diversity in the classroom.  Performance pay has proven detrimental before and government only needs to take a good look at the powerful interplay between standards such pay packages to realize that it is not destined to a bright future. Holt also relates this idea to one pursued in the United Kingdom where such ideas also led to a higher level of centralization of the whole educational system. "In practice, though, NPM doesn't fulfill its promise. Markets don't function in the way textbooks suppose; people don't conform to behaviorist principles (teachers, for example, do not see money as their prime motivator); and, if [the system they use in Britain] is to work, it requires measurable ways of auditing outcomes along with evaluators who are external to the real activity". Holt provides an opinion that seems supported by previous failed attempts at altering the pay-structure of teachers.  Interesting and powerful, Holt's article does a very good job of relating facts and figures internationally with the concepts of standardization and its effect on the educational process.  (LM)
Fairchild-Martindale Library FM-3-SOUTH 370.5 P543 or

Holt, M. (2001). The Comprehensive High School in the United States: A View from Europe and the United Kingdom. Journal of Curriculum and Supervision, 16(2), 137 - 161.

This article examines the historical development of the driving curriculums in secondary schools in the United Kingdom and the United States.  The author contends that although the British system has undergone much change over the course of the 20th century, its current predominant structure largely reflects the "grammar school" structure first tried in 1904.  This system discourages mixed ability teaching, encourages performance pay for teachers, and promotes a return to a core curriculum of basics.  Additionally he argues that the US system is based on the underlying principles of Frederick Taylor's notion of scientific management; and reiterated by Bobbitt, "definite qualitative and quantitative standards must be determined for the product."   This is a good article for increasing one's understanding of the roots of the current UK and US secondary school system, and offers brief suggestions for change.  (JB)
Fairchild-Martindale Library FM-3-SOUTH 370.5 J8653

Hook, P. (2001). The standards for technological literacy: a needed change for technology education. The Technology Teacher, 60, 31-32.

Paul Hook provides a rational for the need for standards in technology education.  He applauds the Standards for Technological Literacy as the "best vehicle" currently available for stating and maintaining a clear identity in technological education.  He ends the article by encouraging professionals in the field to be supportive of the standards.  This is a good article for promoting rational, but it is lacking in any details. (SM)
Fairchild-Martindale LibraryŚnot held

Joint Committee on Health Education Standards. (1995). The National Health Education Standards: Achieving Health Literacy. Atlanta: American Cancer Society.

The Joint Committee developed a list of 10 life skills. These skills are actions that promote health literacy, maintain and improve health, prevent disease, and reduce health related risk behavior. They were the basis for curriculum development in health.  (SB)
Fairchild-Martindale LibraryŚnot held

Jones, R. (2001). U.S. Textbooks Are Long on Glitz, But Where's the Beef? Education Digest, 66(6), 23-30.

The author of this article discusses the issue of textbooks and their current negative influence on curriculum and classroom instruction.  Several reports have criticized textbooks within the past few years as "shallow, dumbed-down products that waste both taxpayers' money and students' learning potential" (pp. 23-24).  Project 2061, an education-reform initiative of the American Association for the advancement of Science (AAAS) performed several studies on the deficiencies of textbooks.  Some of the problems stem from the lack of expertise and time textbook committees have in determining appropriate books for their schools.  The author ends the article by providing several suggestions to improve the quality of textbooks.  This was of particular interest to me because several readings dealt with the strong influence textbooks have on curriculum.  If poor quality books are being produced it must have a negative influence on the curriculum of schools that use them.  (NW)
Fairchild-Martindale Library

Joyce, B. C., E. (2000). PTC 2000. Instructional Supervision, 105-109.

Joyce and Calhoun present six hypotheses, which support school renewal from an inquiry perspective rather than a prescribed formulized approach.  They advocate building time into a daily schedule for teachers to meet and use democratic and collective inquiry to develop ways to help students and connect teachers to the knowledge base which will provide synergy and result in greater efficacy in all areas of the school. (at)
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Kamat, S. (2000). Deconstructing the Rhetoric of Decentralization: The State in Education Reform. Current Issues in Comparative Education, 2(2)

Kamat claims that economic parity with every nation is the primary reason that many countries are embarking on a crusade to reform education.   Decentralization in education comes in different varieties, "some of which actually translate into greater centralization, and others which may exacerbate the social inequities that exist at he local level."  Students of decentralization need to analyze which factions are strengthened and which are weakened.  The author challenges the idea that "decentralization of education implies a weakening of state power and proposes the idea that current education reforms are systematically reorganizing state and civil society in the context of globalization."  I liked the idea that the author challenges the theory that decentralization as a weakening of state power. (MP)
Fairchild-Martindale LibraryŚnot held
Current Issues in Comparative Education, an Online Journal from Teacher's College, Columbia (note: CICE's presentation on web not reliable)

Kennedy, S. S. (2001). Privatizing Education: The Politics of Vouchers. Phi Delta Kappan, 82(6), 450-456.

The author presents the controversial issue of the use of vouchers in education.  The varying groups participating in the debate are described as the "ground war" and the political philosophy as the "air war".  Those involved "have economic interests, social goals, and political and religious beliefs" that influence their stand for or against the use of vouchers.  In addition, it explained the political reasoning behind vouchers and the individual and communal rights we have as citizens. I was interested in this article because several of our reading briefly discussed the topic.  It was particularly informative on the political positioning of different interest groups throughout the country.  (NW)
Fairchild-Martindale Library FM-3-SOUTH 370.5 P543 or

Konzal, J. L. (1997). Teachers and Parents Working Together for Curriculum Reform: Possibility or Pipe Dream? (ED677600).

 This study investigated the introduction of two controversial curriculum reforms in a small New England high school with an eye to the relationships that existed among parents and between parents and educators during the process. Using Eisner's work on educational criticism as a guide, the study used an alternative form of representation--reader theater scripts--to describe its results. The study found that it is difficult for parents and educators to come to common understandings about what goes on in "good" classrooms.  An interesting article, especially given that research appears to indicates that secondary schools same immune to reform.  (DB)
Available from the Libraries' E*Subscribe subscription (ED677600)

Krishnamurti, J. (1953). Education and the Significance of Life. New York: Harper and Row.

This gem of a book contains short essays on a number of topics ranging from philosophy to pedagogy. Krishnamurti's prose is gracefully concise, and 50 years after publication his ideas are still refreshingly thought-provoking.  In particular, "Education and World Peace" challenges us to consider how education perpetuates the existing social order and dominant worldview.  Krishnamurti encourages a classroom based on inquiry which recognizes the fundamental humanity of students as a basis for global understanding.  (JM)
Fairchild-Martindale Library FM-3-NORTH  370.4 K92e

La Marca, P. M. (2001). Alignment of Standards and Assessments as an Accountability Criterion.  College Park MD: ERIC Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation.  ED458288

In this digest, La Marca notes that "to make defensible accountability decisions based in part on student and school-level academic achievement, states must employ assessments that are aligned to their academic standards."  This digest provides an overview of the concept of alignment and the role it plays in assessment and accountability systems. Given the current reform movement's focus on large scale testing and high stakes decision making based on test results, this makes a very timely read.  (DB)
Available from the Libraries' E*Subscribe subscription (ED458288)

Ladson-Billings, G. (1994). The Dreamkeepers:  Successful Teachers of African American Children. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

The book is based on the author's study of a group of excellent teachers of African American students. The book offers models for improving practice and developing grounded theories. The book is both reflective and empirical offering the personal experiences of the author as well:  as scholar and researcher, as African American woman, and as a parent and community member.  It is a discussion of culturally relevant teaching. (DGM)
Fairchild-Martindale Library FM-3-NORTH  370.8996 L157d
Check ASA, Lehigh's Library Catalog for availability

Lashway, L. (2002). The accountability challenge. Principal, 81(3), 14-16.

This is a brief article addressing the growing emphasis on standards-based accountability of school principals in United States.  The uncharted territory in respect to leadership on the topic of accountability has some principals asking for guidance in how to approach the challenge of student achievement levels without losing sight of students' effort.  Lashway identifies three challenges of standards movement leadership (1) be a champion for standards (2) emphasize learning, not performance (3) educate the public and (4) protect the things that matter.  Ultimately, the leader in the school wants to show teachers and the community how they can use assessment results to improve education.  (RD)
Fairchild-Martindale Library FM-3-NORTH 370.5 N277a

Madaus, G. F. Kellegham, T. (1992). Curriculum evaluation and assessment. In P. W. Jackson (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Curriculum (pp. 199-154). New York: Macmillan.

Some say that curriculum is a specific course that can be implemented in one or many schools, whereas others may say it is the total of a student's experiences in school.  (SB)
Fairchild-Martindale Library FM-1-REF  375.00973 H236

Mann, L. (2000). Recalculating middle school math. Curriculum update.

The author examines results from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), which indicate that middle school mathematics in the US are particularly troubled. In comparison to countries which rank higher, these countries focus on fewer topics in greater depth. The remainder of the article gives excellent examples of engaging mathematical investigations which necessitate students using applied concepts.  (RR)
Fairchild-Martindale LibraryŚnot held

Marx, G. (2001). 10 Trends for Tomorrow's Kids. Education Digest, 66(9), 4-10.

The author goes into detail regarding trends for schools in the future.  These will effect the demographics, politics, culture and curriculum.  These consist of 1. For the first time, the old will outnumber the young.  2. The U.S. will become a nation of minorities.   3. Social and intellectual capital will become the primary economic value in society IV. Education will shift from averages to individuals.  5. The Millennial generation will insist on solutions to accumulated problems and injustices.  6. Continuous improvement and collaboration will replace quick fixes and defense of the status quo.  7. Technology will increase the speed of communication and pace of advancement or decline.  8. Knowledge creation and breakthrough thinking will stir a new era of enlightenment. 9. Scientific discoveries and societal realities will force difficult ethical choices.  10. Competition to attract and keep talented people will increase. This article did a good dealing with this week's readings regarding future changes in schools, including areas of curriculum.   (NW)
Fairchild-Martindale Library

McClintock, R. (1992). The Educator's Mission (Chapter 3), Power and Pedagogy:  Transforming Education through Information Technology.

McClintock discusses his views of equity and excellence in education and states that "excellence sustains equity; equity occasions excellence."  He claims that where "life is equitable, people will display more cultural vigor" and that the "fruits of equity seem somewhat paradoxical-they arise, not from making everyone more alike, but in enabling people to share maximum benefit from their differences".  When treated equitably, people will feel as though they have been given a fair chance, and will strive to live life fully.  In asking if computer technology is capable of providing students with an integrated and liberal education, (and evidently expecting an affirmative reaction), then he is calling for equitable spending for educational technology in order to give everyone a fair chance in school. (MP)
Fairchild-Martindale LibraryŚnot held

Medoff, N. J. (1993). Experiential Learning in the New Professionalism.

This speech states that the purpose of experiential learning is the application and integration of concepts and philosophies that students acquire in the traditional classroom experience.  (SB)
Fairchild-Martindale LibraryŚnot held

Met, M. (2001). Why language learning matters. Educational Leadership, 59(2), 36-40.

Met addresses the absence of foreign language learning in the U.S. Education policy's goal for world-class education initiative.  She makes comparisons between the United States foreign language requirements or lack there of with those requirements of European nations and Third World countries.  Met makes a strong argument for requiring foreign language learning as part of the core curriculum. I was somewhat aware of the deficiency in foreign language learning in the U.S.  I realize now, as global education becomes reality, the lack of foreign language proficiency for American students will move from a concern to a crisis.  (RD)
Fairchild-Martindale Library FM-3-SOUTH 370.5 E244

Moldavan, C. C. (2001). Culture in the curriculum: enriching numeration and number operations. Teaching children mathematics, 8, 238-243.

The author provides numerous example of number system in current use in various parts of the world that follow algorithms as well as numeration systems different from those used in the USA. She contends that by teaching the 4th grade students who participated in this project alternative routes to the same solution, the students' understanding of the concepts are expanded and reinforced. The suggested instruction in this article could have practical application value for teachers with a strong mathematical background. (RR)
Fairchild-Martindale Library FM-3-SOUTH 511.05 A717a

Musolff, H.-U. (2001). Multiculturalism as a Pedagogical Problem. European Education, 3, 5-18.

This article examines multiculturalism as it applies to the development of a multicultural society in Germany.  The author first examines multiculturalism as a "transcontextual" concept".  He differentiates between three levels of culture which include everyday, high and cultural discourse.  He suggests that assimilation of minority groups in Germany  is necessary and should not be considered as "pressure" to those groups.   I think that the article offers an interesting comparison between the forms of multiculturalism found in Europe and the United States. (AM)
Fairchild-Martindale Library ľnot held

National Reading Panel (2001). Teaching Children to Read [Online].

Congress assembled this panel to study children's reading skills in the following subgroups: alphabetical; fluency; comprehension; teacher education and reading instruction; and computer technology and reading instruction.   (SB)
Fairchild-Martindale Library

Nelson, G. C. (2001). Choosing content that's worth knowing. Educational Leadership, 59(2), 12-16.

This article brings up the unique viewpoint that not everyone may be in the classroom for the same reason.  Nelson states that before we can think about the what and the who of the curriculum, we need to be clear on why.  He poses the question of whether all children should learn the same content, or should it differ for those with different aspirations, abilities, and interests?  The old adage that a teacher needs to cover a significant amount of the book in order to prove the year to be a successful one.  This is not necessarily what schools are expecting or should be advocating in the 21st century.  Nelson brings to light the idea that teachers should be teaching for understanding. Graduates studying in Ivy League schools can illustrate that schools have not necessarily been successful in this approach to teaching and thus students are not having the understanding needed to be successful in the workplace.  (RD)
Fairchild-Martindale Library FM-3-SOUTH 370.5 E244

Neuman, M. P., J. (2001). The Challenge to Leadership: Focusing on Student Achievement. Phi Delta Kappan, 82, 732-736.

The Annenberg Institute for School Reform recently invited three key speakers to address the relationship between leadership and student achievement. Key points included tapping into the individual educator's training background and stressing student achievement at all levels.  (SB)
Fairchild-Martindale Library FM-3-SOUTH 370.5 P543 or

Ohler, J. (2000). Education Standards as Passing Fad. Education Digest, 66(7), 4-7.

The author describes the phenomenon of continually changing reforms within the realm of education.  He explains all reforms that come and go throughout the years have qualities that can positively influence education (case in point the Standards movement).  Nevertheless, due to the constant 'passing fads' of education, many teachers are reluctant to make real changes realizing the reform will lose popularity within a few years, making way for the next.  I enjoyed the article.  It made me examine the benefits of previous reforms and perform a self-analysis as an educator on why I sometimes resist change.  (NW)
Fairchild-Martindale Library

Pearlman, B. (2002). Reinventing the High School Experience Educational Leadership. Educational Leadership, 59(7), 72-75.

"Small, innovative schools use technology to reinvent the high school experience, empowering students to take charge of their own learning." Pearlman writes this article to introduce new charter concepts in education through technological innovation and adaptation at two schools: New Technology High School and High Tech High.  According to Pearlman, in these two schools, "Technology is integrated into every class, courses are interdisciplinary and project-based, and each student graduates with a digital portfolio."  This, of course, allows students to become instrumental in their own educational experience by determining what is most important for them and allowing them to find their own ways to bridge education with technology. Both schools cater to the idea that students are able to regulate their education. The small size of the schools and the focus on technology allow for the personalization of the students' experience. Throughout their high school experience students are allowed to work on integrated projects, meeting with teachers (and parents) a few times a year to make sure that the ultimate goal, digital portfolio's, are being constructed in an appropriate fashion.  Students seem to be both motivated and excited about their work. The learning environment is described as a workplace, not a school, and internships and exhibitions allow students to develop their work skills as well.  All in all this program seems to be very interesting from the use of technology standpoint.   Hope these are not forgetting about other, more human, aspects of learning (e.g. multiculturalism) while they pursue excellence in education with so much emphasis on technology.   (LM)
Fairchild-Martindale Library FM-3-SOUTH 370.5 E244

Perini, M. J., Silver, H.J., Strong, R.W. (2001). Making students as important as standards. Educational Leadership, 59(3), 56-61.

The article addresses the need to align curriculum, instruction, and assessment with both the standards and students in mind constructing a double alignment. Five guidelines are given to accomplish this double alignment. (1) Make standards simple and deep (2) use models of difference like learning styles and multiple intelligences (3) increase the role of assessment and conversation to help students identify and overcome difficulties (4) stop writing curriculum documents and start writing curriculum that students want to learn and (5) collaborate with colleagues to determine what kinds of work are easy and difficult for students.  Reference is made to Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences when planning and instructing students as well as implementing a variety of assessments used to achieve results.  (RD)
Fairchild-Martindale Library FM-3-SOUTH 370.5 E244

Pfeiffer, J. W., Jones, J.E. (1983). Reference Guide to Handbook and Annuals.  San Diego, CA: University Associates.

Pfeiffer and Jones described experiential learning as a process, or cycle. This cycle consists of five steps: experiencing, publishing (sharing), processing, generalizing, and applying.  (SB)
Fairchild-Martindale LibraryŚnot held

Pithers, R. T. (2000). Critical Thinking in Education:  A Review. Educational Research, 42(3), 237-249.

Worldwide governments and employers consistently recognize the importance of developing critical thinking skills in students.  This article examines the conception of critical thinking and reviews recent research in this area.  It specifically examines teaching methodologies that inhibit and enhance students' thinking ability and recommends various research-based approaches to develop meta cognitive knowledge and skills.  This article provides practical suggestions for administrators and teachers.  (AM)
Fairchild-Martindale Library  FM-3-SOUTH 370.5 E2449 or

Port, O. (1999). Why Johnny may learn to add. Business Week.

This article examines a program of math and science instruction from a dozen districts north of Chicago called First in the World Consortium (FiW).  In the Third International Math and Science Study (TIMSS), FiW students consistently ranked in the top 5 "countries" in grades 4, 8, and 12. This compares to a highest finish for the US in general of 13th, except for grade 4 science, which was 4th.  FiW uses an inquiry-based approach, and will be useful to me in examining the Investigations in Number, Data, and Space curriculum.  (RR)
Fairchild-Martindale Library FM-2-SOUTH Microfilm or via Academic Universe (Lexis-Nexis), Dow Jones News and other library databases

Powell, W. (2002). Conversations that matter: the use and abuse of communications in our schools. International Schools Journal (in publication).

In his article to be published in the upcoming ECIS journal, Powell cautions schools and educators to focus their curriculum and teaching on assisting students to develop the understandings they will need to take their places in an ever changing world. Citing Wheatley's work, he suggests that information should be considered a self-defining process rather than as a "thing." In this extremely thoughtful and well-written article the author suggests that meaningful conversations or explorations may be all that truly matter for our students and therefore, should matter greatly to educators.  (WP)
Fairchild-Martindale LibraryŚnot held

Prokasy, W. (1990). International Studies:  Internal Administration Issues. Association of Departments of Foreign Languages, 22(1).

William Prokasy is a professor at the University of Georgia and sets forth his views on globalizing the college curriculum.  He calls for three levels of questions that faculty and administrators must ask themselves before embarking upon a successful curriculum globalization.  These questions include the following primary points.  At the department level faculty must review what can be done to modify each course to include a globalized curriculum.  At the college level the staff needs to determine if "graduation requirements sufficiently reflect a global perspective" and review their study-abroad programs.  At the campus level everyone needs to review the mission statement to see how it reflects on a globalized curriculum and how globalization is reflected in course/program funding decisions. I agree with the author in his closing statement that involving the faculty in the decision-making process will greatly aid in implementing the needed curriculum changes. (PM)
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Reeves, D. B. (2001). Standards Make a Difference:  The Influence of Standards on Classroom Assessment. NASSP Bulletin, 85(621), 5-12.

The author makes a case for standards-based assessment as having the fundamental purpose being the improvement of student achievement.  In well-crafted standards-based student assessment, the criteria for evaluation are expressed in student-accessible language and give students feedback not only on the extent to which their performance was proficient but also on how to improve their performance.  He also makes a case for assessment being based on standards rather than norms.  The author is, however, the director of the Center for Performance Assessment in Denver, Colorado.  The theory behind his view of standards is valid but the practice will be more difficult to implement.  (DGM)
Fairchild-Martindale Library

Reid, W. (2000). Curriculum as an Expression of National Identity. Journal of Curriculum and Supervision, 15(2), 113-122.

The author of this article argues that national curriculums are "cultural artifacts" that uniquely and historically reflect a countries cultural identity.  He offers a historical perspective for the development of numerous countries' curriculums (including Germany, Norway, the United Kingdom, and the United States) and how this has led comparisons between national curriculums to go astray.  This is a decent article for gaining somewhat of an understanding for the reasons and philosophies behind a variety of mostly eurocentric curriculums, but offers little suggestion of how to develop a universal curriculum, of which the author alludes to in his opening remarks. (JB)
Fairchild-Martindale Library FM-3-SOUTH 370.5 J8653

Reys, R. E. (2001). Curricular Controversy in the Math Wars: A Battle Without Winners. Phi Delta Kappan 83(3), 255-258.

Reys discusses the controversy between standards-based and traditional curriculum in Math.  The author provides information regarding both curricula stating positive characteristics and concerns for each.  Aside from a particular curricula he also concentrates on the need for improvement in textbooks and lists the difficulties that publishers have in creating effective teaching tools.  This is an informative article that makes a plea for educators to work together to create the most effective Math curriculum while urging publishers produce the best textbook to fit that curriculum.  (NW)
Fairchild-Martindale Library FM-3-SOUTH 370.5 P543 or

Rosenmund, M. (2000). Approaches to International  Comparative Research on Curriculum and Curriculum-making Process.  Journal of Curriculum Studies 32(5), 599-606.

Rosenblum explores the question of the feasibility of comparing curricular processes internationally thus linking research across national borders.  He examines the object of curriculum and states that there is a distinction between curriculum and the curriculum process.  He reviews approaches to curriculum research including theories of societal systems, class-status theories, world system theories and organizational theories.  He concludes that methodological problems exist when doing international comparisons and offers several promising  approaches as a way to compromise.  This article holds special interest for anyone doing international comparative research.  (AM)
Fairchild-Martindale LibraryŚnot held

Rousseau, J. J. Emile.  ILT Publications, Columbia University Press (online)

Jean Jacques Rousseau, 1712-78 was a Swiss-French philosopher and political theorist who greatly influences the French enlightenment and the French revolutionists.  "Emile", translated by Barbara Foxley in 1911, focuses on the education and childhood of students in the 1700s.  The book is comprised of a series of thoughts and ideas given to the public to read and act upon.  The advice of educating children is humanistic and compassionate.  The child is to be raised in harmony with his surroundings and without negative influences or conflict in the home or school setting.  Rousseau cites Plato's Republic as the finest treatise on education ever written.  He emphasizes the need for children to have space to stretch and grow by describing the restrictions placed on babies as soon as they are born by binding them in swaddling bands.  He uses this as a metaphor to emphasize the importance of space, nature, and freedom to learn needed by children.  He advocates a script to be followed when teaching moral lessons.  He writes that we must teach children according to their ageůin modern terms age appropriateness. He asks that education of the day be examined and changed to produce children with good and positive habits.  (AT)  Online version of classic by Rousseau, Emile at
Fairchild-Martindale Library FM-3-NORTH 370.1 R864eE 1955
Check ASA, Lehigh's Library Catalog for availability

Scoppio, G. (2000). Common Trends of Standardization, Accountability, Devolution and Choice in the Educational Policies of England, U.K., California, USA, and Ontario, Canada. Current Issues in Comparative Education [online]  2(2).   Available at: [7/31/02]     .

Scoppio discusses the commonalities of education reform trends in England, Calfornia, and Ontario.  These trends include both centralizing reforms, such as standardized testing, accountability, and curricula standardization, and decentralizing reforms, including the establishment of a new open enrollment system and school choice programs.  The author feels these reforms are not in the students' best interest, and may create an even larger gap between majority and minority culture students.  I agree with the author that the current trends in education reform will not result in improvements for the minority student's education. (MP)  Fairchild-Martindale LibraryŚnot held

Sellnow, D. D., Seekins, L.L. (1992) Justifying Forensic Programs to Administrators: An Experiential Education Opportunity.  Paper presented at the meeting of Speech Communication Association, Chicago, IL

Sellnow and Seekins broke experiential learning into three major parts: 1. Connecting theoretical knowledge to real life experiences; 2. Valuing and fostering different ways of knowing, and; 3. Encouraging lifelong learning.  (SB)
Fairchild-Martindale LibraryŚnot held

Sen, G. (2001). Can the IB strengthen the local, globally. IB World, 27, 12.

This article provides critical analysis of the role of the International Baccalaureate Organization.  In particular, Sen examines the effect of the type of international education offered by the IBO on local communities, and considers how students view their "local knowledge" after being exposed to a global curriculum which relies on so many external resources.  Sen poses many key questions which have sparked a healthy debate about the role of the IBO in guiding national systems.  (JM)
Fairchild-Martindale LibraryŚnot held

Snauwaert, D. (2001). Cosmopolitan democracy and democratic education. Current Issues in Comparative Education [online] 4(1). Available at: [7/31/02]

Snauwaert explores the issue of international human rights and maintains that it is man's "moral imperative to respect the dignity of every human life."  He argues that education as we know it will have to be revisited if we are going to educate democratically from a cosmopolitan perspective. He calls for education to move in the direction of "authentic being."  (MP)
Fairchild-Martindale LibraryŚnot held

Soper, S. (2001). American Education Reaches Out, Schools Create Benchmarks and Standards Through Project AERO. Newslinks (Princeton, NJ).

Soper discusses project AERO as a collaborative effort of twelve international schools in writing a core curriculum for the global setting.  This is a first attempt to write an international curriculum that is U.S. standards-driven.  Two sections of the project have been completed and are available on the web.  The AERO curriculum is an interesting project; however, the main focus is exporting U.S. educational standards.  (AT)
Fairchild-Martindale LibraryŚnot held

Steindorf, S. (2002, March 19, 2002). Third grade? It's time for test prep class. Christian Science Monitor.

This article gives a current look at the impact of standards-based education and high-stakes testing.  The economic implications of privatization of education are staggering - with test-preparation courses for third grade students costing nearly a thousand dollars.  The intense pressure to perform well on standardized tests, and the availability of prepackaged, formulaic approaches to the technical skills of test-taking seem to contribute to the trend of outsourcing education.  (JM)
Fairchild-Martindale Library via the Libraries' Academic Universe (Lexis/Nexis)

Stevenson, D. L., Baker, David P. (1991). State Control of the Curriculum and Classroom Instruction. Sociology of Education, 64(1), 1-10.

In this strictly empirical article, the authors look closely at the relationship between state control of the curriculum and classroom instruction.  Specifically, they look at mathematics instruction in over 2,000 classrooms in 15 different educational systems.  They hypothesis that the degree to which an educational system is centralized or decentralized has an observable impact on classroom instruction.  Their findings indicate that curriculum reform can be more efficiently implemented in educational systems with more centralized control.  I find this article  interesting given the increased level of attention the federal government is placing on establishing national standards in the United States. (AM)
Fairchild-Martindale Library FM-3-SOUTH 370.5 J862 or at

Tanner, L. N. (2000). Critical Issues in Curriculum Revisited. Educational Forum, 65(1), 16-21.

The following critical issues were identified by Dr. Tanner in 1988:  impact of testing on curriculum, controversies over textbook selection, effects of political pressures on supervisors, decision making in curriculum matters, and the constant ebb and flow of curriculum fashions.  In looking at the same issues today, the impact of high-stakes testing is clearly still a problem as many teachers are teaching to the test and putting the regular curriculum on hold as well as virtually ignoring the instructional approach of the Dewey philosophy to teach reasoning and problem-solving skills.  Political pressures have also increased as the role of the Federal Government in education confuses an already gray area.  Tanner concludes that with regard to all of these issues the educational leaders must effectively exercise leadership.  (DGM)
Fairchild-Martindale Library FM-3-SOUTH 370.5 E246

Thomas, D. M. B., W. L. (2001). "All Children Can Learn": Facts and Fallacies. Phi Delta Kappan, 82(9), 660-662.

This article addresses the facts and fallacies of "all children can learn". The author feels that the effective school movement has become punishment-oriented. It is believed that the principal cannot function alone as instructional leader. Educators cannot do this alone.  (SB)
Fairchild-Martindale Library FM-3-SOUTH 370.5 P543 or

Tomlison, C. A. (1999). The differentiated classroom: responding to the needs of all learners: ASCD.

Tomlinson brings to life the appropriateness and need for differentiated instruction in classrooms of this century.  She equates this differentiated approach to the one-room schoolhouse that existed 100 years ago.  Classrooms of the 1890's and 2002 have learners at varying stages of development that can benefit from this type of individualized or small group instruction.  The article gives examples at all levels of education of how to apply differentiated instruction in the classroom whether PE, U.S. History, or a spelling lesson.  Reading Tomlison's article makes you excited about teaching again.  (RD)
Fairchild-Martindale LibraryŚnot held


Veugelers, W. (2000). Different Ways of Teaching Values. Educational Review, 52(1), 37-46.

This article looks at the educational concepts that deal with values in education.  The authors examine and describe the relationship between value education, critical thinking, moral development, and critical pedagogy.  The results indicate that students prefer teachers to recognize different value systems as well as to express their own preferences.  This article is interesting because it addresses the issue of reproduction and transformation in modern society and describes how it relates to curriculum instruction.  (AM)
Fairchild-Martindale LibraryŚnot held

Voke, H. (2002). Web Wonders: Customizing Our Schools. Educational Leadership, 59(7), 96.

This article is a resource for educators who want to find information on four basic categories: The Beginning: Dewey, Charter Schools, Project-Based Learning and Essential Schools. Apart from providing a brief description of the categories, Voke points out several internet sites that will provide further information on the topic. The article makes a short presentation of the concept to be covered and then allows the reader to use the related internet links to find further information about the particular section concerned.  At the outset the article speaks of John Dewey's ideology and writings and offers sources to investigate further. "Proponents", of charter schools, says Voke, " believe that charter schools can provide students with the opportunity to choose an education environment that fits their interests and needs". In the Essential Schools category, Voke introduces the Coalition for Essential Schools, stating that "the Coalition hopes to reinvent schools 'through transformations in school design, classroom practice, leadership, and community connections'."  In the Project Based Learning section Voke states that "advocates believe that this approach builds on the individual interests of students and promotes a deeper understanding of subject matter." This article is very direct and to-the-point. As such it allows for a fast covering of the content and essentially focuses the reader to the internet address that are, in the end, the focus of the article. Though the article lacks the research conclusions of articles in education, it is none-the-less useful in providing resources to readers wanting to find additional information on the subjects. (LM)
Fairchild-Martindale Library FM-3-SOUTH 370.5 E244

Volk, L. (2000). Education between Globalization and Local Culture:  A World without Frontiers for Students without Traditions? Paper presented at the Cross-Roads of the New Millennium,   Proceedings of the Technological Education and National Development Conference.

Ms. Volk peers at the issue of educating children in a globalized society through an anthropological lens.  She notes that many adults in the Middle East where she teaches "bemoan" the "dangers of deculturalization" and fear too much Westernization.  However, each person chooses for himself whether to accept or reject globalized theory, based upon his own culture. The end result is that he localizes the global through the process.  (PM)
Fairchild-Martindale LibraryŚnot held

Warner, D. S. (2000). The principal's role in school improvement. A bridge in the middle, 10, 12-15.

The author is the middle school principal in Spangdahlem, Germany, and advocates for principals to take a leadership role in the school improvement process. She presents arguments for shared decision making, thereby creating "buy-in" to the process on the part of teachers. She maintains that the school improvement process can be effectively used to improve collegiality, instruction, curriculum, as well as increasing understanding of assessment, content, and methodology. The article is fairly straightforward and does not provide any new insights.  (RR)
Fairchild-Martindale LibraryŚnot held

Willis, S. (2002). Customization and the Common Good: A Conversation with Larry Cuban. Educational Leadership, 59(7), 6-11.

This article is the transcript of an interview with educational historian Larry Cuban, addressing "the tension between two dominant trends in education: customization and standardizationů how these two trends work against each other and how they affect the delicate balance of public schools' responsibilities to provide individual benefits, to supply the workplace with good employees, and to prepare students for citizenship."  In the interview Cuban speaks about the dichotomy of education, and weighs the benefits of education as they relate to individualism -vs.- society. Certainly the push toward customization allow students to become informed and able individuals, but standardization also allows students to become important members of a community or society. Cuban is able to provide answers to a variety of questions that range from "Is this urge also driven by our looking at other countries that are more standardized in their schooling?" to "Do we risk eroding citizenship and the common good if we customize education offerings?" to " Do we just have to live with a certain amount of tension between the individual benefits and the social benefits of public schooling?" Certainly this article is interesting and very timely. It addresses the exact problems that are so pervasive in contemporaty educational research and provides a good interpretation of what is going on from a rather non-biased perspective.  A very informative and interesting article, not only for the quality of the questions, but for the content of the questions and answers.  (LM)
Fairchild-Martindale Library FM-3-SOUTH 370.5 E244

Willis, S., Checkley, K. (1996). Bringing mathematics to life, Curriculum update. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

This is one article in a series of three within this volume of the publication, all of which address programs, activities, and curricula that incorporate aspects of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). Math curricula that are examined are Mathematics in Context (MiC) for middle grades, Core-Plus Mathematics Project (CPMP) for high school, the University of Chicago School Math Project (UCSMP) for grades K-12, and Investigations in Number, Data, and Space for grades K-5 developed by the Technical Education Research Center (TERC). These articles are quite useful for concrete teaching suggestions, as well as basic background on various math curricula.  (RR)
Fairchild-Martindale LibraryŚnot held


Yau, R. (2000). Technology & Equity. Principal Leadership, 1(4), 54-55.

The past several years schools have invested billions of dollars on providing technology such as computers and Internet access to their students.  The main issue is where most of that money has been spent?  Minorities and students from low-income areas often don't get the quality or quantity of technology that white middle and upper class districts receive.  Decisions should be made at the district and local levels to ensure all students regardless of race, color, or socio-economic status receive equal equipment and teachers get equal technology training.  I think Dewey would agree that providing equal opportunities in technology are essential to education!  (NW)
Fairchild-Martindale Library FM-3-SOUTH  370.5 H6381a


 Each citation includes each contributor's initials as noted here.
 AM=Munley , Ann C
 AML=Lange, Ann-Marie
 AS=Aspito, Sheri
 AT=Templeton, Ann F
 DB=Britton, Denelle
 DGM=Giorello-Moczulski, Denise M.
 JB=Berninzoni, Jon
 JN=Nordmeyer, Jon
 LM= Myers, Laurence E.
 MP=Petty, Molly
 NW=Walker, Nathan
 RD=Douglas, Roger J.
 RR=Risch, Robert P.
 SB=Brown, Sarah M.
 WP= Plotkin, Walter

How might this bibliography be used?

This web-enabled collective bibliography may suggest articles and books to be read for understanding of a particular aspect of the global dimensions of curriculum and instruction.  Library locations for either the print or electronic copies available at the Lehigh University Libraries are indicated for each citation.  If you wish to order a photocopy of materials available only in print, please use the Document Delivery request form.

A note on online access to the Libraries' collection of e-journals, ERIC reports and e-books:  In order to use library resources remotely you need to be identified as Lehigh University in cyberspace.  You accomplish this by setting your web browser to "proxy" our library server,   This "tells"  the remote server at the publisher's or database producer's that you are in fact an authorized users of Lehigh University library subscriptions.  For directions see  Also a helper software application called the Acrobat Reader is required for most of the Libraries' electronic resources.  If you don't have the Reader, it can be downloaded for free from Adobe at

For all aspects of library collections and services, visit the library home page at
For a single page starting point for many resources in education and related fields, go to the InfoDome for Education at

Compiled by Jean M. Johnson, Librarian for Education, Lehigh University  using the following campus-licensed applications:  ASA, Lehigh's Library Catalog, Blackboard's Digital Drop Box, EndNote, ERIC and Education Abstracts on OCLC's FirstSearch, SSH Secure Shell 3.1, and MS-WORD in RTF and HTML file formats.

Please contact to learn about using the literature in education and related fields.

Last update: 5/29/02;7/31/02