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@2006 Ed Gallagher, Professor of English, Lehigh Lab Fellow. Lehigh University.
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(suggestions for additions much appreciated)

Last update 9/05

Frankly, I didn't do much background reading before or during the project.   I suspected the scholarship would be huge, and I didn't want to risk losing my freshness.  So, I compiled most of the list of references cited here after the project and as a result of truly sensing the need for deeper insights, different perspectives, wider contextualization -- and because of a serious worry that this all had been done before, that I was re-inventing the wheel, that I was belaboring the obvious.

References here include material pertinent to discussion in general, not just to or even mainly to the online variety.

I can't yet lay claim to have absorbed all that is in this still far-from-comprehensive and ever-growing list of references (suggestions for additions much appreciated), but here are some pertinent works that will help situate my project and nurture my further explorations -- and should do the same for others.

A special tip o' the hat to Stephen Tompkins, Barry Kroll, Ken Bains, and the Visible Knowledge Project staff for contributions to this list.


Anderson, Lorin W., and David R. Krathwohl, eds.  A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.  New York: Longman, 2001.

Arnett, Ronald C.  Dialogic Education: Conversation about Ideas between People.  Carbondale : Southern Illinois UP, 1992.

Bateman, Walter L.  Open to Question: The Art of Teaching and Learning by Inquiry.  San Francisco: Jossey Bass, 1990.

Bender, Tisha.  Discussion-based Online Teaching to Enhance Student Learning: Theory, Practice and Assessment.  Sterling: Stylus Publishing, 2003.

Bloom, Benjamin S., ed.  Taxonomy of Educational Objectives; The Classification of Educational Goals.  New York: Longmans, Green, 1956.

Bormann, Ernest G.  Discussion and Group Methods: Theory and Practice.  New York: Harper and Row, 1975.

Brilhart, John K., Gloria J. Galanes, and Katherine Adams.  Effective Group Discussion: Theory and Practice. 10 th Edition.  New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002.

Brookfield, Stephen D., and Stephen Preskill.  Discussion as a Way of Teaching: Tools and Techniques for Democratic Classrooms.  San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1999.

Chilver, Peter, and Gerard Gould.  Learning and Language in the Classroom: Discursive Talking and Writing across the Curriculum.  Oxford: Pergamon P, 1982.

Christensen, C. Roland,  David A. Garvin, and Ann Sweet, eds.  Education for Judgment: The Artistry of Discussion Leadership.  Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1991.

Collison, George, B. Elbaum, Sarah Haavind, and R. Tinker.  Facilitating Online Learning: Effective Strategies for Moderators.  Madison: Atwood Publishing, 2000.

Dillon, James T.  Using Discussion in Classrooms.  Buckingham: Open UP, 1994.

Eisley, Mark E.  Notes on Instructional and Performance Technology.  Nampa: Solnote Publishing, 1995.

Gambrell, Linda B., and Janice F. Almasi.  Lively Discussions!: Fostering Engaged Reading.  Newark: International Reading Association, 1996.

Harnack, R. Victor, and Thorrel B. Fest.  Group Discussion: Theory and Technique.  New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1964.

Haroutunian-Gordon, Sophie.  Turning the Soul: Teaching through Conversation in the High School.  Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1991.

Hill, William Fawcett.  Learning Thru Discussion: Guide for Leaders and Members of Discussion Groups.  Beverly Hills: Sage, 1982.

Johnson, Mary Canice.  Discussion Dynamics.  Rowley: Newbury House Publishers, Inc., 1979.

Keltner, John W.  Group Discussion Processes.  Westport: Greenwood Press, 1974.

Makau, Josina M., and Debian L. Marty.  Cooperative Argumentation: A Model for Deliberative Community.  Prospect Heights: Waveland Press, 2001.

McKeachie, Wilbert J.  Teaching Tips: Strategies, Research, Theory for College and University Teachers.  Lexington: D.C. Heath, 1994.

Potter, David, and Martin P. Andersen. Discussion: A Guide to Effective Practice.  Belmont: Wadsworth, 1970.

Preece, Jenny.  Online Communities: Designing Usability, Supporting Sociability.  New York: John Wiley, 2000.

Purves, Alan C., and Victoria Rippere.  Elements of Writing about a Literary Work: A Study of Response to Literature.  Champaign: National Council of Teachers of English, 1968.

Rheingold, Howard.  The Virtual Community: Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier.  Reading: Addison-Wesley, 1993.

Salmon, Gilly.  E-Moderating: The Key to Teaching and Learning Online.  London: Routledge, 2000.

---.  E-tivities: The Key to Active Online Learning.  London: Kogan Page, 2002.

Shor, Ira.  Critical Teaching and Everyday Life.  Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1987.

Shor, Ira, and Paulo Freire.  A Pedagogy for Liberation: Dialogues on Transforming Education.  South Hadley: Bergin & Garvey Publishers, Inc., 1987.

Spellmeyer, Kurt.  Common Ground: Dialogue, Understanding, and the Teaching of Composition.  Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1993.

Tannen, Deborah.  The Argument Culture: Moving from Debate to Dialogue.  New York: Random House, 1998.

Wagner, Russell H., and Carroll C. Arnold.  Handbook of Group Discussion.  Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1950.

Wilen, William W, ed.  Teaching and Learning through Discussion: The Theory, Research and Practice of the Discussion Method.  Springfield: Charles C Thomas: 1990.


Adriaen, Monique.  “Online Discussion Lists: Promoting Active Learning and Collaboration.”  CORE [York University's Newsletter on University Teaching] 12.3 (May 2003).  http://www.yorku.ca/cst/core/vol12no3/adriaen-discuss.html

Aherne, Terence C., Kyle Peck, and Mary Laycock.  "The Effects of Teacher Discourse on Computer-mediated Discussion."  Journal of Educational Computing Research 8 (1992): 291-309.

Albion, Peter R., and Peggy A. Ertmer.  Online Courses: Models and Strategies for Increasing Interaction.  Paper presented at AusWeb04: The Tenth Australian World Wide Web Conference, Sea World Nara Resort, Australia, July 2004.  http://ausweb.scu.edu.au/aw04/papers/refereed/albion/paper.html (accessed February 1, 2005).

Anderson, Terry, et al.  "Assessing Teaching Presence in a Computer Conferencing Context."  Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks 5.2 (2001).   http://www.sloan-c.org/publications/jaln/v5n2/index.asp

Aviv, Reuven.  "Educational Performance of ALN via Content Analysis." Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks 4.2 (2000): 53–72.  http://www.sloan-c.org/publications/jaln/v4n2/v4n2_aviv.asp

Aviv, Reuven, et al.  "Network Analysis of Knowledge Construction in Asynchronous Learning Networks." Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks 7.3 (2003).  http://www.sloan-c.org/publications/jaln/v7n3/v7n3_aviv.asp (accessed September 30, 2005)

Beaudin, Bart P.  "Keeping Online Asynchronous Discussions on Topic."  Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks 3.2 (1999): 41-53.  http://www.aln.org/publications/jaln/v3n2/v3n2_beaudin.asp (accessed February 1, 2005).

Beauvois, Margaret Healy.  “E-Talk: Attitudes in Computer-Assisted Classroom Discussion.”  Computers and the Humanities 38.3 (1994-1995): 177-90.

Briskin, Linda.  “The Challenge of Classroom Silence.”  CORE  [York University's Newsletter on University Teaching] 10. 1 (October 2000).  http://www.yorku.ca/cst/core/pdf/Vol10Num1.pdf

Brookfield, Stephen D.  "Preparing for Discussion" and "Facilitating Discussions."  The Skillful Teacher: On Technique, Trust, and Responsiveness in the Classroom.  San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1990.  88-114.

Bruffee, Kenneth.  "Collaborative Learning and the 'Conversation of Mankind.'"  College English 46.7 (1984): 635-62.

Cashin, William, E., and Philip C. McKnight.  "Improving Discussion."  IDEA Paper, No. 15.  Kansas State University: Center for Faculty Evaluation & Development, 1986.

Christensen, C. Roland.  "The Discussion Teacher in Action: Questioning, Listening and Response."   Education for Judgment: The Artistry of Discussion Leadership.  Eds. C. Roland Christensen, David A. Garvin, and Ann Sweet.  Boston: Harvard Business School, 1991.  153-72.

---.  "Every Student Teaches and Every Teacher Learns: The Reciprocal Gift of Discussion Teaching."  Education for Judgment: The Artistry of Discussion Leadership.  Eds. C. Roland Christensen, David A. Garvin, and Ann Sweet.  Boston: Harvard Business School, 1991.  99-111.

Cooper, Marilyn.  "Postmodern Pedagogy in Electronic Conversations."  Passions, Pedagogies, and 21st Century Technologies.  Eds. Gail E. Hawisher and Cindy L. Selfe.  Logan: Utah State UP, 1999.  140-60.

Cooper, Marilyn, and Cindy Selfe.  "Computer Conferences and Learning: Authority, Resistance, and Internally Persuasive Discourse."  College English 52.8 (1990): 847-69.

Gall, M., and J. Gall.  "The Discussion Method."  The Psychology of Teaching Methods.  Ed. N. Gage.  Chicago: National Society for the Study of Education, 1976.  166-216.

Garrison, D. R., T. Anderson, and W. Archer.  "Critical Thinking, Cognitive Presence, and Computer Conferencing in Distance Education."  American Journal of Distance Education 15.1 (2001): 7–23.

Grady, D. B.  "Mapping Online Discussions with Lexical Scores."  Journal of Interactive Learning Research 14.2 (2003): 209-29.

Greene, T.  "The Art of Responsible Conversation."  Journal of General Education 8 (1954): 34-50.

Gunawardena, Charlotte N., and Frank J. Zittle.  "Social Presence as a Predictor of Satisfaction Within a Computer-Mediated Conferencing Environment."  American Journal of Distance Education 11.3 (1997): 8-25.

Gunawardena, Charlotte N., Constance A. Lowe, and Terry Anderson.   "Analysis of a Global Online Debate and the Development of an Interaction Analysis Model for Examining Social Construction of Knowledge in Computer Conferencing."  Journal of Educational Computing Research 17.4 (1997): 397–431.

---.   “Transcript Analysis of Computer-Mediated Conferences as a Tool for Testing Constructivist and Social Constructivist Learning Theories.”  Distance Learning ’98.  Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Distance Teaching and Learning 14 th.  Madison WI, 1998.

Haavind, Sarah.  "Speaking in Voices: Effective Techniques for Keeping Web Discussions Running Smoothly."  The Concord Consortium Newsletter  Winter 1999.  Available online 

---.  "Why Don't Face-to-Face Teaching Strategies Work in the Virtual Classroom?"  The Concord Consortium Newsletter Fall 2000.  Available online

Hawisher, Gail E.  "Electronic Meetings of the Mind: Research, Electronic Conferences, and Composition Studies."  Re-Imagining Computers and Composition: Teaching and Research in the Virtual Age.  Eds. Gail E. Hawisher and Paul LeBlanc.  Portsmouth: Heinemann, 1992.  81-101.

Hayes, A., ed.  The Discussion Method of Teaching: A Symposium.  Journal of General Education 8 (1954): 2-71.

Hewitt, J.  "How Habitual Online Practices Affect the Development of Asynchronous Discussion Threads."  Journal of Educational Computing Research 28.1 (2003): 31-45.

---.  "Towards an Understanding of How Threads Die in Asynchronous Computer Conferences."  Chicago: Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, 2003.

Howard, V. A., and J. H. Barton.  "On the Nature of Rational Discussion."  Thinking Together: Making Meetings Work.  New York: William Morrow, 1992.  17-23.

Jeong, A. C.  "The Sequential Analysis of Group Interaction and Critical Thinking in Online Threaded Discussions." American Journal of Distance Education 17.1 (2003): 25–43.

Kashy, Deborah A., Guy Albertelli II, W. Bauer, E. Kashy, and M. Thoennessen.  “Influence of Non-Moderated and Moderated Discussion Sites on Student Success.”  Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks 7.1 (Feb. 2003): 31-36. http://www.aln.org/publications/jaln/v7n1/v7n1_kashy.asp

Knowlton, Dave S.  "Promoting Durable Knowledge Construction through Online Discussion." Proceedings of the Mid-South Instructional Technology Conference, 2001.  http://www.mtsu.edu/~itconf/proceed01/11.pdf

Knowlton, Dave S., H. M. Knowlton, and C. Davis. "The Whys and Hows of Online Discussion."  Syllabus: New Directions in Educational Technology 13.10 (2000): 54-58.

Lea, Mary.  "Computer Conferencing: New Possibilities for Writing and Learning in Higher Education."  Student Writing in Higher Education: New Contexts.  Eds. Mary Lea & Barry Stierer.  London: Open UP.

Levin, James A., Haesun Kim, and Margaret Riel.  "Analyzing Instructional Interactions on Electronic Message Networks."  Online Education: Perspectives on a New Environment.  Ed. Linda M. Harisim.  New York: Praeger, 1990.  185-213.

Meyer, Katrina A.  "The Ebb and Flow of Online Discussions: What Bloom Can Tell Us about Our Students’ Conversations."   Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks 9.1 (2005).

---.  “Evaluating Online Discussions: Four Different Frames of Analysis.”  Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks 8.2 (April 2004).  http://www.aln.org/publications/jaln/v8n2/v8n2_meyer.asp

---. “Face to Face Versus Threaded Discussions: The Role of Time and Higher-Order Thinking.” Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks 7.3 (Sept. 2003).  http://www.aln.org/publications/jaln/v7n3/v7n3_meyer.asp

Miller, John.  “Critical Thinking and Asynchronous Discussion.”  Inquiry 19.1 (1999):18-27.

Milliron, Mark David, and Mary Prentice.  “Anytime, Anyplace and the Community College: Ten Emerging Insights.”  Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks 8.1 (Feb. 2004).  http://www.aln.org/publications/jaln/v8n1/v8n1_milliron1.asp

Moore, Michael G.  "Three Types of Interaction."  American Journal of Distance Education 3.2 (1989): 1-6.

Murphy, Elizabeth.  "Identifying and Measuring Problem Formulation and Resolution in Online Asynchronous Discussions."  Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology 30.1 (2004): 5-20.

---.  "Recognizing and Promoting Collaboration in Online Asynchronous Discussions."  British Journal of Educational Technology 35.4 (2004): 421-31.

Murphy, Elizabeth, and Jamie Loveless.  "Students' Self Analysis of Contributions to Online Asynchronous Discussions."  Australasian Journal of Educational Technology 21.2 (2005): 155-72.

Newman, G., B. Webb, and C. Cochrane.  "A Content Analysis Method to Measure Critical Thinking in Face-to-Face and Computer Supported Group Learning."  Interpersonal Computing and Technology 3.2 (1995): 56–77.

Ottenhoff, John, and David Lawrence.  “Ten Paradoxical Truths about Conference Software in the Classroom.”  Syllabus: New Directions in Education Technology13.3 (1999): 54-57.

Paterson, R.  "The Concept of Discussion: A Philosophical Approach."  Studies in Adult Education 2 (1970): 28-50.

Roblyer, M. D., and Leticia Ekhaml.  "How Interactive are YOUR Distance Courses?  A Rubric for Assessing Interaction in Distance Learning."  Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration  3.2 (2000).  Available online

Romiszowski, A. J.  "Use of Hypermedia and Telecommunications for Case-study Discussions in Distance Education."  Open and Distance Learning Today.  Ed. Fred Lockwood.  New York: Routledge, 1995.  164-72.

Rourke, Liam, et al.  “Assessing Social Presence in Asynchronous Text-Based Computer Conferencing.” Journal of Distance Education 14.2 (1999): 50-71.

Schriner, Delores K., and William C. Rice.  "Computer Conferencing and Collaborative Learning: A Discourse Community at Work."  College Composition and Communication 40.4 (1989): 472-78.

Selfe, Cynthia L., and Paul R. Meyer.  "Testing Claims for On-Line Conferences."  Written Communication 8.2 (1991): 163-92.

Shneiderman, B.  "Relate-Create-Donate: A Teaching/Learning Philosophy for the Cyber-Generation." Computers & Education 31.1 (1998): 25-39.

Sringam, Chinawong, and Ruth Greer.  “An Investigation of an Instrument for Analysis of Student-led Electronic Discussions.”  Learning to Choose—Choosing to Learn: Proceedings of the 17 th Annual ASCILITE Conference.  Eds. R. Sims, M. O’Riley, and S. Sawkins.  Coffs Harbour, NSW: Southern Cross UP, 2000. 81-91.  Available online

Starr, Roxanne Hiltz.  "Evaluating the Virtual Classroom."  Online Education: Perspectives on a New Environment .  Ed. Linda M. Harasim.  New York: Praeger, 1990. 134–84.

Stepich, Donald A., Peggy A. Ertmer, and Molly M. Lane.  "Problem-Solving in a Case-Based Course: Strategies for Facilitating Coached Expertise."  Educational Technology Research and Development 49.3 (2001): 53-69.

Swan, Karen.  "Building Communities in Online Courses: The Importance of Interaction."  Education, Communication, and Information 2.1 (2002): 23-49.

---.  "Learning Online: A Review of Current Research on Issues, of Interface, Teaching Presence and Learner Characteristics."  Elements of Quality Online Education: Into the Mainstream.  Ed. John Bourne and Janet C. Moore.  Needham: Sloane Center for Online Education, 2004.  63-79.

Ugoretz, Joseph.  "Two Roads Diverged in a Wood": Productive Digression in Asynchronous Discussion.  Innovate 1.3 (2003).  http://www.innovateonline.info/index.php?view=article&id=30 (accessed February 10, 2005).

Vandergrift, Kay E.  "The Anatomy of a Distance Education Course: A Case Study Analysis.  Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks 6.1 (2002): 76-90. http://www.aln.org/publications/jaln/v6n1/v6n1_vandergrift.asp (accessed February 1, 2005).

Welty, William M.  "Discussion Method Teaching."  Change 21.4 (1989): 40-49.

---.  "Discussion Method Teaching: A Practical Guide."  To Improve the Academy 8 (1989): 197-216.

Wu, Dezhi, and Roxanne Hiltz Starr.  “Predicting Learning from Asynchronous Online Discussions.”  Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks 8.2 (April 2004).  http://www.aln.org/publications/jaln/v8n2/v8n2_wu.asp

Yagelski, Robert P., and Jeffrey T. Grabill.  "Computer-mediated Communication in the Undergraduate Writing Classroom: A Study of the Relationship of Online Discourse and Classroom Discourse in Two Writing Classes."  Computers and Composition 15.1 (1998): 11-40.

Web Material

Bloom's Taxomony:  http://www.coun.uvic.ca/learn/program/hndouts/bloom.html

Bloom's Taxonomy: Sample Questions:  http://www.officeport.com/edu/bloomq.htm

John Ottenhoff's 2003-2004 Carnegie Scholars Project: "Community, Authority, and Technology"

Learning Domains or Bloom's Taxonomy:  http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/bloom.html

Major Categories in the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: