MICHAEL J. STAVOLA
Department of Physics, Lehigh University
16 Memorial Drive East, Bethlehem, PA 18015
telephone: (610) 758-3946; e-mail: mjsa@Lehigh.EDU
Awards and Honors
Ph.D. in Physics (with D.L. Dexter), University of Rochester, May, 1980
B.S. in Physics and Engineering, Trinity College, May, 1975
Sherman Fairchild Professor of Physics, Lehigh University, July 2005
Assoc. Dean, Research and Graduate Programs, July 2009 - present
Chair, Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Aug. 2003 – June 2009
Professor of Physics, Lehigh University, Sept., 1993
Director, Fairchild Laboratory for Solid State Studies, July, 1995 - June, 1997
Associate Professor of Physics, Lehigh University, Sept., 1989
Visiting Scientist, Lund University, Lund, Sweden, Fall, 1985
Member of Technical Staff, Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, 1980 - 1989
Fellow of the Inst. of Physics (United Kingdom), 2011
Humboldt Research Award for Senior US Scientists, 2003
Fellow of the American Physical Society, 1994
Individual Performance Award, AT&T Bell Laboratories, 1986
Michael Stavola received his Ph.D. in Physics from the University of Rochester under the supervision of D.L. Dexter in 1980 and was a member of the technical staff at Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, from 1980-1989. Stavola then joined the faculty of Lehigh University where he is the Sherman Fairchild Professor of Physics. He was chair of the Department of Physics (2003-2009) and is an Associate Dean in the College of Arts and Sciences (2009-2012). The focus of Stavola’s research has been on the physics of light-element impurities in semiconductors, especially hydrogen. His IR studies of the local modes of various H-containing defects in semiconductors has served as a major source of experimental understanding of this important class of defects. Stavola extends his fundamental studies of defects to include important applications with a recent example being the detection of H introduced into Si by processes used to fabricate solar cells. While Stavola’s most sustained effort has been on H in semiconductors, the common thread that extends throughout his work is the insightful use of spectroscopy to extract key experimental information.
Stavola was co-chair of the 16th Int. Conf. on Defects in Semiconductors in 1991, chair of the Gordon Conf. on Defects in Semiconductors in 1994, and has co-chaired DMP focus sessions on Defects in Semiconductors in 1998, 2002, 2008, 2009, and 2010.
Research on defects in semiconductors and semiconducting oxides
Understanding defects and impurities is essential to understanding electronic and photonic materials and the devices made from them. The goal of Stavola’s research program is to determine and understand the fundamental properties of defects in semiconductors and transparent conducting oxides that are important in technology. For example, vibrational spectroscopy is used to investigate the structures and properties of defects that contain light-element impurities such as H, C, O, and N that play an important role in determining the electronic properties of semiconductors such as Si, GaN, ZnO and GaAsN that are of current technological interest. Our recent research is focused on the effect of H on the conductivity of transparent conducting oxides, the shift of the band gap of dilute III-N-V alloys caused by hydrogen, and the effects of the light elements on the properties of Si solar cells. Our research benefits from collaborations with researchers from around the world.
Recent Publications (out of 178)
Effect of H on the conductivity of transparent conducting oxides
- Hydrogen impurities and shallow donors in SnO2 studied by infrared spectroscopy, F. Bekisli, M. Stavola, W.B. Fowler, L. Boatner, E. Spahr, and G. Lupke, Phys. Rev. B 84, 035213 (2011).
- Hindered rotation of an OH-Li center in MgO: Infrared absorption experiments and theory, K. Martin, C. Peng, S. Kleekajai, P. Blaney, E. Diamond, W. B. Fowler, M. Stavola, and R. Gonzalez, Phys. Rev. B 75, 245211 (2007).
- Identification of an OH-Li center in ZnO, G. A. Shi, M. Stavola, and W. B. Fowler, Phys. Rev. B 73, 081201(R) (2006).
- Hydrogen local modes and shallow donors in ZnO, G. A. Shi, M. Stavola, S. J. Pearton, M. Thieme, E. V. Lavrov, and J. Weber, Phys. Rev. B 72, 195211 (2005).
- “Hidden hydrogen” in as-grown ZnO, G.A. Shi, M. Saboktakin, M. Stavola, and S.J. Pearton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5601 (2004).
Impurities in Si solar cells materials
- Microscopic structure of a VH4 center trapped by C in Si, C. Peng, H. Zhang, M. Stavola, W.B. Fowler, B. Esham, S.K. Estreicher, A. Docaj, L. Carnel, and M. Seacrist, Phys. Rev. B., in press.
- Interaction of hydrogen with carbon in multicrystalline Si solar-cell materials, C. Peng, H. Zhang, M. Stavola, V. Yelundur, A. Rohatgi, L. Carnel, M. Seacrist, and J. Kalejs, J. Appl. Phys. 109, 053517 (2011).
- Infrared study of the concentration of H introduced into Si by the postdeposition annealing of a SiNx coating, S. Kleekajai, L. Wen, C. Peng, M. Stavola, V. Yelundur, K. Nakayashiki, A. Rohatgi, and J. Kalejs, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 123510 (2009).
- Concentration and penetration depth of H introduced into crystalline Si by hydrogenation methods used to fabricate solar cells, S. Kleekajai, F. Jiang, M. Stavola, V. Yelundur, K. Nakayashiki, A. Rohatgi, G. Hahn, S. Seren, and J. Kalejs, J. Appl. Phys. 100, 093517 (2006).
Band gap shift of dilute III-N-V alloys caused by H
- Detailed structure of the H-N-H center in GaAs1-yNy revealed by vibrational spectroscopy under uniaxial stress, L. Wen, F. Bekisli, M. Stavola, W.B. Fowler, R. Trotta, A. Polimeni, M. Capizzi, S. Rubini, and F. Martelli, Phys. Rev. B 81, 233201 (2010).
- Vibrational properties of the H-N-H complex in dilute III-N-V alloys: Infrared spectroscopy and density functional theory, S. Kleekajai, F. Jiang, K. Colon, M. Stavola, W.B. Fowler, K.R. Martin, A. Polimeni, M. Capizzi, Y.G. Hong, H.P. Xin, C.W. Tu, G. Bais, S. Rubini, and F. Martelli, Phys. Rev. B 77, 085213 (2008).
- Vibrational spectroscopy of hydrogenated GaAs1-yNy: A structure-sensitive test of an H2* model, F. Jiang, M. Stavola, M. Capizzi, A. Polimeni, A. Amore Bonapasta, and F. Filippone, Phys. Rev. B 69, 041309(R) (2004).
H2 in Si
- Ortho-para transition of interstitial H2 and D2 in Si, C. Peng, M. Stavola, W. B. Fowler, and M. Lockwood, Phys. Rev. B 80, 125207 (2009).
- Interstitial H2 in Si: Are all problems solved, M. Stavola, E E. Chen, W.B. Fowler, G.A. Shi, Physica B 340-342, 58 (2003).
- Identification of Defects in Semiconductors, edited by M. Stavola, Volumes 51A (1998) and 51B (1999) in the series Semiconductors and Semimetals (Academic, Boston).
- Hydrogen in Crystalline Semiconductors, S. J. Pearton, J.W. Corbett, and M. Stavola, (Springer-Verlag, Heidelburg, 1992).