Publications Chronologically

Mark H. Bickhard

2017. 2016. 2015. 2014. 2013. 2012. 2011. 2010. 2009. 2008. 2007. 2006. 2005. 2004. 2003. 2002. 2001. 2000. 1999. 1998. 1997. 1996. 1995. 1994. 1993. 1992. 1991. 1989. 1988. 1987. 1986. 1985. 1983. 1982. 1980. 1979. 1978. 1977. 1976.

  2017

Bickhard, M. H.  (2017).  How to Operationalize a Person.  New Ideas in Psychology, 44, 2-6.

First Page.

  2016

Bickhard, M. H.  (2016).  Inter- and En- Activism: Some thoughts and comparisons.  New Ideas in Psychology, 41, 23-32.

Bickhard, M. H.  (2016).  Metatheoretical Issues in Personality Psychology.  In Hal Miller (Ed.)  SAGE Encyclopedia of Theory in Psychology.  (549-551).  London: Sage.

Bickhard, M. H.  (2016).  The Anticipatory Brain: Two Approaches.  In V. C. Müller  (Ed.)  (2016).  Fundamental Issues of Artificial Intelligence.  (259-281).  Switzerland: Springer.

Bickhard, M. H.  (2016).  Probabilities over What?  Human Development, 59, 34-36.  DOI: 10.1159/000447026

Allen, J. W. P., Bickhard, M. H.  (2016).  Emergence, Action, and Representation.  IEEE, CIS, CDS Newsletter: The Newsletter of the Technical Committee on Cognitive and Developmental Systems, 13(1), 15-16.

Bickhard, M. H.  (2016).  Cognition and the Brain (abstract).  In Gershenson, C., Froese, T., Siqueiros, J. M., Aguilar, W., Isquierdo, E. J., Sayama, H.  Proceedings of the Artificial Life Conference 2016, Cancun, Mexico, 6 July 2016, pg. 17.  Cambridge, MA: MIT press.

First Page.

  2015

Bickhard, M. H. (2015). The Metaphysics of Emergence. Kairos, 12, 7-25.

Bickhard, M. H. (2015). Toward a Model of Functional Brain Processes I: Central Nervous System Functional Micro-architecture. Axiomathes, 25(3), 217-238. DOI 10.1007/s10516-015-9275-x

Bickhard, M. H. (2015). Toward a Model of Functional Brain Processes II: Central Nervous System Functional Macro-architecture. Axiomathes, 25(4), 377-407. DOI 10.1007/s10516-015-9276-9

Bickhard, M.H.  (2015).  The Social-Interactive Ontology of Language.  Ecological Psychology, 27(3), 265-277.          DOI: 10.1080/10407413.2015.1068656

Allen, J. W. P., Bickhard, M. H.  (2015).  Stepping Back: Reflections on a Pedagogical Demonstration of Reflective Abstraction.  Human Development, 58, 245-252.

First Page.

  2014

Bickhard, M. H. (2014). Robot Sociality: Genuine or Simulation? In J. Seibt, R. Hakli, M. Norskov (Eds.) Sociable Robotics and the Future of Social Relations. Series: Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications. (81-86). Amsterdam: IOS Press.

Bickhard, M. H. (2014). Model interaktywistyczny. In Marcin Milkowski (Ed.) Kognitywistyka. Reprezentacje (109-165) Warsaw, Poland: Przeglad Filozoficzno-literacki. Translation of Bickhard, M. H. (2009). The interactivist model. Synthese 166(3), 547-591.

Bickhard, M. H. (2014). What Could Cognition Be, If not Computation ... or Connectionism, or Dynamic Systems? Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, 35(1), 53-66. DOI - 10.1037/a0038059

First Page.

  2013

Martin, J., Bickhard, M. H.  (2013).  The Psychology of Personhood:  Philosophical, Historical, Social-Developmental, and Narrative Perspectives.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Martin, J., Bickhard, M. H.  (2013).  An Introduction to the Psychology of Personhood.  In Martin, J., Bickhard, M. H.  (Eds).  The Psychology of Personhood:  Philosophical, Historical, Social-Developmental, and Narrative Perspectives.  (1-18).  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bickhard, M. H.  (2013).  The Emergent Ontology of Persons.  In Martin, J., Bickhard, M. H.  (Eds).  The Psychology of Personhood:  Philosophical, Historical, Social-Developmental, and Narrative Perspectives.  (165-180).  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bickhard, M. H.  (2013).  The Creativity of Development and the Development of Creativity.  Papers from the AAAI Spring Symposium Technical Report SS-13-02: Cognitive Development: A Perspective from Artificial Creativity, Developmental AI, and Robotics.  Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence.  Palo Alto, California: AAAI Press.

Allen, J. W. P., Bickhard, M. H.  (2013).  Stepping Off The Pendulum: Why Only an Action-Based Approach Can Transcend the Nativist-Empiricist Debate.  Cognitive Development, 28, 96-133.

Allen, J. W. P., Bickhard, M. H.  (2013).  The Pendulum Still Swings.  Cognitive Development, 28, 164-174.

First Page.

  2012

Bickhard, M. H. (2012). A Process Ontology for Persons and Their Development. New Ideas in Psychology, 30(1), 107-119.

Martin, J., Bickhard, M. H. (2012). An Introduction to the Special Issue on "The New Psychology of Personhood". New Ideas in Psychology, 30(1), 86-88.

First Page.

  2011

Bickhard, M. H.  (2011).  The Dynamics of Acting.  Humana Mente, 15, 177-187.

Allen, Jedediah WP, Bickhard, M. H.  (2011).  Poster: Anticipation as an Alternative Perspective for Understanding Imitation Activity.  15 Jan 11  2011 CEU Budapest Conference on Cognitive Development.

Ziemke, T., Bickhard, M. H.  (2011).  Cognitive Robotics: Introduction to the Special Issue.  New Ideas in Psychology, 29(3), 201-202.

Bickhard, M. H.  (2011).  Does Process Matter? An Introduction to the Special Issue on Interactivism.  Axiomathes, 21:1–2.

Bickhard, M. H.  (2011).  Some Consequences (and Enablings) of Process Metaphysics.  Axiomathes, 21:3–32.

Campbell, R. J., Bickhard, M. H.  (2011).  Physicalism, Emergence and Downward Causation.  Axiomathes, 21: 33-56.

Bickhard, M. H.  (2011).  On the Concept of Concept.  Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, 31(2), 102-105.

Allen, J. W. P., Bickhard, M. H.  (2011).  You Can’t Get There From Here: Foundationalism and Development.  Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 34(3), 124-125.

Allen, J.W.P., Bickhard, M. H.  (2011).  Normativity: A Crucial Kind of Emergence.  Human Development, 54, 106-112.         DOI: 10.1159/000327096

Bickhard, M. H.  (2011).  Systems and Process Metaphysics.  In C. Hooker  (Ed.) Handbook of Philosophy of Science. Philosophy of Complex Systems, Vol. 10.  (91-104).  Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Allen, J. W. P., Bickhard, M. H.  (2011).  Emergent Constructivism.  Child Development Perspectives.  5(3), 164-165.         DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-8606.2011.00178.x

Bickhard, M. H. (2011). Myths of Science: Misconceptions of Science in Contemporary Psychology. In H. J. Stam (Ed.) Theoretical Psychology - Contemporary Readings. Vol. II (57-71). London: Sage. ISBN: 978-1-84920-773-7 reprint of Bickhard, M. H. (1992). Myths of Science: Misconceptions of science in contemporary psychology. Theory and Psychology, 2(3), 321-337.
First Page.

  2010

Bickhard, M. H.  (2010).  Is Normativity Natural?  In M. Milkowski, K. Talmont-Kaminski  (Eds.)  Beyond Description: Normativity in Naturalised Philosophy.  (14-30).  London: College Publications.        

Bickhard, M. H.  (2010).  Interactive Knowing: The Metaphysics of Intentionality.  In R. Poli, J. Seibt  (Eds.)  Theory and Applications of Ontology.  Philosophical Perspectives.  (207-229).  Springer.        

First Page.

  2009

Bickhard, M. H. (2009). Interactivism: A Manifesto. New Ideas in Psychology, 27, 85–9.      DOI 10.1016/j.newideapsych.2008.05.001

Bickhard, M. H. (2009). The Biological Foundations of Cognitive Science. New Ideas in Psychology, 27, 75–84.      DOI 10.1016/j.newideapsych.2008.04.001

Bickhard, M. H.  (2009).  Interactivism: introduction to the special issue.  Synthese, 166(3), 449-451.         DOI 10.1007/s11229-008-9371-1

Bickhard, M. H.  (2009).  The interactivist model.  Synthese, 166(3), 547-591.         DOI 10.1007/s11229-008-9375-x

Bickhard, M. H. (2009). Emergence: Process Organization, not Particle Configuration. Cybernetics and Human Knowing, 15(3-4), 57-63.

Bickhard, M. H. (2009). Some Remarks on Process Metaphysics and Representation. Cybernetics and Human Knowing, 15(3-4), 71-74.

Bickhard, M. H.  (2009).  Interactivism.  In J. Symons, P. Calvo  (Eds.)  The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Psychology.  (346-359).  London: Routledge.

First Page.

  2008

Bickhard, M. H. (2008). Are You Social? The Ontological and Developmental Emergence of the Person. In U. Mueller, J. I. M. Carpendale, N. Budwig, B. Sokol (Eds.) Social Life and Social Knowledge. (17-42). New York: Taylor & Francis.

Bickhard, M. H. (2008). Issues in Process Metaphysics. Ecological Psychology, 20(3), 252-256.

Bickhard, M. H. (2008). Social Ontology as Convention. Topoi, 27(1-2), 139-149.

Bickhard, M. H. (2008). Is Embodiment Necessary? In P. Calvo, T. Gomila (Eds.) Handbook of Cognitive Science: An Embodied Approach. (29-40). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

First Page.

  2007

Bickhard, M. H. (2007). Modern Approaches to Language. New Ideas in Psychology, 25(2), 67-69.

Bickhard, M. H. (2007). Language as an Interaction System. New Ideas in Psychology, 25(2), 171-187.

Christopher, J. C., Bickhard, M. H. (2007). Culture, Self and Identity: Interactivist Contributions to a Metatheory for Cultural Psychology. Culture & Psychology, 13(3), 259-295.

Bickhard, M. H. (2007). Learning is Scaffolded Construction. In D. W. Kritt, L. T. Winegar (Eds.) Education and Technology. (73-88). New York: Rowman & Littlefield.

Bickhard, M. H. (2007). Mechanism Is Not Enough. In Q. Gonzalez, M. Eunice, W. F. G. Haselager, I. E. Dror (Eds.) Mechanicism and Autonomy: What Can Robotics Teach Us About Human Cognition and Action? Special issue of Pragmatics and Cognition, 15(3), 573-585.

First Page.

  2006

Bickhard, M. H. (2006). Developmental Normativity and Normative Development. In L. Smith, J. Voneche (Eds.) Norms in Human Development. (57-76). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

First Page.

  2005

Bickhard, M. H. (2005). Consciousness and Reflective Consciousness. Philosophical Psychology, 18(2), 205-218.

Bickhard, M. H. (2005). Anticipation and Representation. In C. Castelfranchi (Ed.) From Reactive to Anticipatory Cognitive Embodied Systems. (1-7). AAAI Fall Symposium, Technical Report FS-05-05. Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press.

Bickhard, M. H., Campbell, R. L. (2005). Editorial: New Ideas in Psychology. New Ideas in Psychology, 23(1), 1-4.

Bickhard, M. H. (2005). Functional Scaffolding and Self-Scaffolding. New Ideas in Psychology, 23(3), 166-173.

First Page.

  2004

Bickhard, M. H. (2004). The Social Ontology of Persons. In J. I. M. Carpendale, U. Mueller (Eds.) Social Interaction and the Development of Knowledge. (111-132). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Bickhard, M. H. (2004). Process and Emergence: Normative Function and Representation. Axiomathes - An International Journal in Ontology and Cognitive Systems, 14, 135-169. Reprinted from: Seibt, J. (2003). Process Theories: Crossdisciplinary Studies in Dynamic Categories. Dordrect: Kluwer Academic.

Bickhard, M. H. (2004). A Challenge to Constructivism: Internal and External Sources of Constructive Constraint. Human Development, 47, 94-99.

Bickhard, M. H. (2004). Normativity and Mind. Review of Duality of the Mind: A Bottom Up Approach Toward Cognition. by Ron Sun. Contemporary Psychology, 49(2), 156-158.

Bickhard, M. H. (2004). The Dynamic Emergence of Representation. In H. Clapin, P. Staines, P. Slezak (Eds.) Representation in Mind: New Approaches to Mental Representation. (71-90). Elsevier.

Bickhard, M. H. (2004). Why Believe in Beliefs? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 27(1), 100-101.

Stojanov, G., Bickhard, M. H. (2004). Representation: Emulation and Anticipation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 27(3), 418.

First Page.

  2003

Bickhard, M. H. (2003). The Biological Emergence of Representation. In T. Brown, L. Smith (Ed.) Emergence and Reduction: Proceedings of the 29th Annual Symposium of the Jean Piaget Society. (105-131). Erlbaum.

Bickhard, M. H., Campbell, D. T. (2003). Variations in Variation and Selection: The Ubiquity of the Variation-and-Selective Retention Ratchet in Emergent Organizational Complexity. Foundations of Science, 8(3), 215-282.

Bickhard, M. H. (2003). Variations in Variation and Selection: The Ubiquity of the Variation-and-Selective Retention Ratchet in Emergent Organizational Complexity, Part II: Quantum Field Theory. Foundations of Science, 8 (3), 283-293.

Bickhard, M. H. (2003). An Integration of Motivation and Cognition. In Smith, L., Rogers, C., Tomlinson, P. (Eds.) Development and motivation: joint perspectives. Leicester: British Psychological Society, Monograph Series II, 41-56.

Bickhard, M. H. (2003). Some notes on internal and external relations and representation. Consciousness & Emotion, 4(1), 101-110.

Bickhard, M. H. (2003). Process and Emergence: Normative Function and Representation. In: J. Seibt (Ed.) Process Theories: Crossdisciplinary Studies in Dynamic Categories. (121-155). Dordrect: Kluwer Academic.

Bickhard, M. H. (2003). Mind as Process. In F. G. Riffert, M. Weber (Eds.) Searching for New Contrasts. (285-294). Vienna: Peter Lang.

First Page.

  2002

Bickhard, M. H. (2002). Critical Principles: On the Negative Side of Rationality. New Ideas in Psychology, 20, 1-34.

Christensen, W. D., Bickhard, M. H. (2002). The Process Dynamics of Normative Function. Monist, 85(1), 3-28.

Campbell, R. L., Christopher, J. C., & Bickhard, M. H. (2002). Self and Values: An Interactivist Foundation for Moral Development. Theory and Psychology, 12(6), 795-823.

First Page.

  2001

Bickhard, M. H. (2001). The Tragedy of Operationalism. Theory and Psychology, 11(1), 35-44.

Bickhard, M. H. (2001). The Emergence of Contentful Experience. In T. Kitamura (Ed.) What Should be Computed to Understand and Model Brain Function? (217-237). Singapore: World Scientific.

Bickhard, M. H. (2001). Why Children Don't Have to Solve the Frame Problems: Cognitive Representations are not Encodings. Developmental Review, 21, 224-262.

Bickhard, M. H. (2001). Function, Anticipation, Representation. In D. M. Dubois (Ed.) Computing Anticipatory Systems. CASYS 2000 - Fourth International Conference. (459-469). Melville, NY: American Institute of Physics.

Christopher, J. C., Bickhard, M. H., Lambeth, G. S. (2001). Otto Kernberg's Object Relations Theory: A Metapsychological Critique. Theory and Psychology, 11(5), 687-711.

Bickhard, M. H. (2001). Error Dynamics: The Dynamic Emergence of Error Avoidance and Error Vicariants. Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence, 13, 199-209.

First Page.

  2000

Bickhard, M. H. (2000). Dynamic Representing and Representational Dynamics. In E. Dietrich, A. Markman (Eds.) Cognitive Dynamics: Conceptual and Representational Change in Humans and Machines. (31-50). Erlbaum.

Bickhard, M. H. (2000). Information and Representation in Autonomous Agents. Journal of Cognitive Systems Research, 1(2). http://www.elsevier.nl.

Bickhard, M. H. (2000). Emergence. In P. B. Andersen, C. Emmeche, N. O. Finnemann, P. V. Christiansen (Eds.) Downward Causation. (322-348). Aarhus, Denmark: University of Aarhus Press.

Bickhard, M. H. (2000). Review of B. Shanon, The Representational and the Presentational. Minds and Machines, 10(2), 313-317.

Bickhard, M. H. (2000). Motivation and Emotion: An Interactive Process Model. In R. D. Ellis, N. Newton (Eds.) The Caldron of Consciousness. (161-178). J. Benjamins.

Bickhard, M. H. (2000). A Historical Approach to Teaching Introductory Cognitive Science. CogSci News, 11(1,2), 2-3.

Bickhard, M. H. (2000). Autonomy, Function, and Representation. Communication and Cognition - Artificial Intelligence. Special issue on: The contribution of artificial life and the sciences of complexity to the understanding of autonomous systems. Guest Editors: Arantza Exteberria, Alvaro Moreno, Jon Umerez. 17(3-4), 111-131.

First Page.

  1999

Levine, A., Bickhard, M. H. (1999). Concepts: Where Fodor Went Wrong. Philosophical Psychology, 12(1), 5-23.

Bickhard, M. H. (1999). Interaction and Representation. Theory & Psychology, 9(4), 435-458.

Bickhard, M. H. (1999). On the Cognition in Cognitive Development. Developmental Review, 19, 369-388.

Bickhard, M. H. (1999). Representation In Natural and Artificial Agents. E. Taborsky (Ed.) Semiosis. Evolution. Energy: Towards a Reconceptualization of the Sign. (15-25). Aachen: Shaker Verlag.

Bickhard, M. H. (1999). The Dynamics of Representation. In B. Hayes, C.A. Hooker, R. Heath, A. Heathcote (Eds.) Proceedings of the Fourth Australian Cognitive Science Conference. Newcastle: University of Newcastle, Australia. ISBN 0 7259 1059 3 http://psychology.newcastle.edu.au/~heath/cogsci97/

Bickhard, M. H. (1999). How to Fill Empty Symbols. In B. Hayes, C.A. Hooker, R. Heath, A. Heathcote (Eds.) Proceedings of the Fourth Australian Cognitive Science Conference. Newcastle: University of Newcastle, Australia. ISBN 0 7259 1059 3 http://psychology.newcastle.edu.au/~heath/cogsci97/

First Page.

  1998

Bickhard, M. H. (1998). Genuine Representation in Artificial Systems. In G. Antoniou, J. Slaney (Eds.) Advanced Topics in Artificial Intelligence. (27-38). Springer.

Bickhard, M. H. (1998). Constructivisms and Relativisms: A Shopper's Guide. In M. R. Matthews (Ed.) Constructivism in Science Education: A Philosophical Debate. (99-112). Kluwer Academic.

Bickhard, M. H. (1998). Levels of Representationality. Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence, 10 (2), 179-215.

Bickhard, M. H. (1998). Whither Representation? In M. A. Gernsbacher, S. J. Derry (Eds.) Proceedings of the Twentieth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, University of Wisconsin-Madison, August 1 - 4, 1998, 150-155. Erlbaum.

Bickhard, M. H. (1998). A Process Model of the Emergence of Representation. In G. L. Farre, T. Oksala (Eds.) Emergence, Complexity, Hierarchy, Organization, Selected and Edited Papers from the ECHO III Conference. Acta Polytechnica Scandinavica, Mathematics, Computing and Management in Engineering Series No. 91, Espoo, Finland, August 3 - 7, 1998, 263-270.

Bickhard, M. H. (1998). Robots and Representations. In R. Pfeifer, B. Blumberg, J.-A. Meyer, S. W. Wilson (Eds.) From Animals to Animats 5. (58-63). Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior. Zurich, Switzerland, August 17 - 21, 1998. MIT.

Bickhard, M. H. (1998). Constraints on the Architecture of Mind. New Ideas in Psychology, 16(2), 97-105.

First Page.

  1997

Bickhard, M. H. (1997). Constructivisms and Relativisms: A Shopper's Guide. Science Education, 6, 29-42.

Bickhard, M. H. (1997). Review of The Search for Mind. Minds and Machines, 7, 125-128.

Bickhard, M. H. (1997). Is Cognition an Autonomous Subsystem? In S. O'Nuallain, P. McKevitt, E. MacAogain (Eds.). Two Sciences of Mind. (115-131). John Benjamins.

Bickhard, M. H. (1997). Emergence of Representation in Autonomous Agents. Cybernetics and Systems: Special Issue on Epistemological Aspects of Embodied Artificial Intelligence, 28(6), 489-498.

Bickhard, M. H. (1997). Cognitive Representation in the Brain. In Dulbecco (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Human Biology. 2nd Ed. (865-876). Academic Press.

Bickhard, M. H. (1997). Piaget and Active Cognition. Human Development, 40, 238-244.

First Page.

  1996

Bickhard, M. H. (1996). Sobre los principios de la etica en Counseling y Psicoterapia. Revista Argentia de Clinica Psicologica, V(1), 37-49.

Bickhard, M. H. (1996). Troubles with Computationalism. In W. O'Donohue, R. F. Kitchener (Eds.) The Philosophy of Psychology. (173-183). London: Sage.

Bickhard, M. H. (1996). The Emergence of Representation in Autonomous Embodied Agents. Papers from the 1996 AAAI Fall Symposium on Embodied Cognition and Action. Chair: Maja Mataric. Nov 9-11, MIT, Cambridge, MA. Technical Report FS-96-02. Menlo Park, CA.: AAAI Press.

Bickhard, M. H., Campbell, R. L. (1996). Developmental Aspects of Expertise: Rationality and Generalization. Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence, 8(3/4), 399-417.

Bickhard, M. H., Campbell, R. L. (1996). Topologies of Learning and Development. New Ideas in Psychology, 14(2), 111-156.

First Page.

  1995

Bickhard, M. H., Terveen, L. (1995). Foundational Issues in Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science: Impasse and Solution. Elsevier Scientific.

Bickhard, M. H. (1995). Intrinsic Constraints on Language: Grammar and Hermeneutics. Journal of Pragmatics, 23, 541-554.

Bickhard, M. H. (1995). World Mirroring versus World Making: There's Gotta be a Better Way. In L. Steffe, J. Gale (Eds.) Constructivism in Education. (229-267). Erlbaum.

Bickhard, M. H. (1995). Is Cognition an Autonomous Subsystem? In Sean O Nuallain, Paul McKevitt (Eds.) AISB-95 Workshop on Reaching for Mind: Foundations of Cognitive Science, Sheffield, England, 3-7 April, 1995. The Tenth Biennial Conference on AI and Cognitive Science organised by the Society for the Study of Artificial Intelligence and Simulation of Behaviour and the Department of Computer Science at the University of Sheffield.

Bickhard, M. H. (1995). Review of Understanding Origins. Philosophical Psychology, 8(1), 112-116.

Bickhard, M. H. (1995). Transcending False Dichotomies in Developmental Psychology -- Review of Beyond Modularity. by A. Karmiloff-Smith. Theory and Psychology, 5(1), 161-165.

Bickhard, M. H. (1995). Who Interprets the Isomorphisms? New Ideas in Psychology, 13(2), 135-137.

First Page.

  1994

Bickhard, M. H., Christopher, J. C. (1994). The Influence of Early Experience on Personality Development. New Ideas in Psychology, 12(3), 229-252.

Bickhard, M. H. (1994). Rocks, Frogs, and the Cartesian Gulf: Toward a Naturalism of Persons. New Ideas in Psychology, 12(3), 267-276.

Christopher, J. C., Bickhard, M. H. (1994). The persistence of basic mistakes: Re-exploring psychopathology in Individual Psychology. Journal of Individual Psychology, 50, 223-231.

First Page.

  1993

Bickhard, M. H. (1993). Representational Content in Humans and Machines. Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence, 5, 285-333.

Bickhard, M. H. (1993). On Why Constructivism Does Not Yield Relativism. Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence, 5, 275-284.

Bickhard, M. H. (1993). Foundations of Language Studies. In Crochetière, A., Boulanger, J., Ouellon, C. (Eds.) Proceedings of the XVth International Congress of Linguists. Vol. I. (237-242). Québec: Les Presses de L'Univeristé Laval.

Bickhard, M. H. (1993). Staircase? How Can We Tell? Review of The Mind's Staircase by Robbie Case. American Journal of Psychology, 106(4), 577-633.

Campbell, R. L., Bickhard, M. H. (1993). Knowing Levels and the Child's Understanding of Mind. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 16(1), 33-34.

First Page.

  1992

Bickhard, M. H., Campbell, R. L. (1992). Some Foundational Questions Concerning Language Studies: With a Focus on Categorial Grammars and Model Theoretic Possible Worlds Semantics. Journal of Pragmatics, 17(5/6), 401-433. Target article for commentary in a special double issue.

Campbell, R. L., Bickhard, M. H. (1992). Clearing the Ground: Foundational Questions Once Again. Journal of Pragmatics, 17(5/6), 557-602.

Bickhard, M. H. (1992). How Does the Environment Affect the Person? In L. T. Winegar, J. Valsiner (Eds.) Children's Development within Social Contexts: Metatheory and Theory. Erlbaum, 63-92.

Bickhard, M. H. (1992). Scaffolding and Self Scaffolding: Central Aspects of Development. In L. T. Winegar, J. Valsiner (Eds.) Children's Development within Social Contexts: Research and Methodology. Erlbaum, 33-52.

Bickhard, M. H. (1992). Commentary on the Age 4 Transition. Human Development, 35(3)182-192.

Campbell, R. L., Bickhard, M. H. (1992). Types of Constraints on Development: An Interactivist Approach. Developmental Review, 12(3), 311-338.

Bickhard, M. H. (1992). Myths of Science: Misconceptions of science in contemporary psychology. Theory and Psychology, 2(3), 321-337.

Christopher, J. C., Bickhard, M. H. (1992). Remodeling the As If in Adler's Concept of the Life Style. Journal of Individual Psychology, 76-85.

Christopher, J. C., Bickhard, M. H., Lambeth, G. S. (1992). Splitting Kernberg: A Critique of Otto Kernberg's Notion of Splitting. Psychotherapy, 29(3), 481-485.

Bickhard, M. H. (1992). The Strange Case of Bi-Photo-ism: Paul Churchland as the 8th Annual Selfridge Lecturer in Philosophy. CogSci News, 5(1), 5-6.

Bickhard, M. H. (1992). Piaget on Variation and Selection Models: Structuralism, logical necessity, and interactivism. In L. Smith (Ed.) Jean Piaget: Critical Assessments. Routledge, chapter 83, 388-434. (Reprint of 1988)

Campbell, R. L., Bickhard, M. H. (1992). A Deconstruction of Fodor's Anticonstructivism. In L. Smith (Ed.) Jean Piaget: Critical Assessments. Routledge, chapter 72, 134-148. (Reprint of 1987)

First Page.

  1991

Bickhard, M. H. (1991). The Import of Fodor's Anti-Constructivist Argument. In Les Steffe (Ed.) Epistemological Foundations of Mathematical Experience. New York: Springer-Verlag, 14-25.

Bickhard, M. H. (1991). A Pre-Logical Model of Rationality. In Les Steffe (Ed.) Epistemological Foundations of Mathematical Experience. New York: Springer-Verlag, 68-77.

Bickhard, M. H. (1991). Cognitive Representation in the Brain. Invited chapter in Encyclopedia of Human Biology. Vol. 2. Academic Press, 547-558.

Bickhard, M. H. (1991). Homuncular Innatism is Incoherent: A reply to Jackendoff. The Genetic Epistemologist, 19(3), 5.

Bickhard, M. H. (1991). How to Build a Machine with Emergent Representational Content. CogSci News, 4(1), 1-8.

Campbell, R. L. Bickhard, M. H. (1991). If Human Cognition is Adaptive, Can Human Knowledge Consist of Encodings? Commentary on "Is Human Cognition Adaptive?" by John R. Anderson Behavioral and Brain Sciences, (14), pp. 488-489.

First Page.

  1989

Bickhard, M. H., Campbell, R. L. (1989). Interactivism and Genetic Epistemology. Archives de Psychologie, 57(221), 99-121.

Bickhard, M. H. (1989). Ethical Psychotherapy and Psychotherapy as Ethics. New Ideas in Psychology, 7(2), 159-164.

Bickhard, M. H. (1989). The Nature of Psychopathology. In Lynn Simek-Downing (Ed.) International Psychotherapy: Theories, Research, and Cross-Cultural Implications. Westport, CT: Praeger Press.

Wedemeyer, N. V., Bickhard, M. H., Cooper, R. G. (1989). The Development of Structural Complexity in the Child's Concept of Family: The Effect of Cognitive Stage, Sex, and Intactness of Family. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 150(4), 341-357.

First Page.

  1988

Bickhard, M. H. (1988). Piaget on Variation and Selection Models: Structuralism, logical necessity, and interactivism. Human Development, 31, 274-312.

Bickhard, M. H. (1988). The Necessity of Possibility and Necessity. Review of Piaget's Possibility and Necessity Harvard Educational Review, 58, No. 4, 502-507.

Richie, D. M., Bickhard, M. H. (1988). The Ability to Perceive Duration: Its Relation to the Development of the Logical Concept of Time. Developmental Psychology, 24, 318-323.

First Page.

  1987

Bickhard, M. H. (1987). The Social Nature of the Functional Nature of Language. In Maya Hickmann (Ed.) Social and Functional Approaches to Language and Thought. Academic.

Campbell, R. L., Bickhard, M. H. (1987). A Deconstruction of Fodor's Anticonstructivism. Human Development, 30, 48-59.

First Page.

  1986

Campbell, R. L., Bickhard, M. H. (1986). Knowing Levels and Developmental Stages. Contributions to Human Development. Basel, Switzerland: Karger.

First Page.

  1985

Bickhard, M. H., Cooper, R. G., Mace, P. E. (1985). Vestiges of Logical Positivism: Critiques of Stage Explanations. Human Development, 28, 240-258.

First Page.

  1983

Bickhard, M. H., Richie, D. M. (1983). On the Nature of Representation: A Case Study of James Gibson's Theory of Perception. New York: Praeger Publishers.

First Page.

  1982

Bickhard, M. H. (1982). Automata Theory, Artificial Intelligence, and Genetic Epistemology. Revue Internationale de Philosophie, 36, No. 142-143, 549-566, Invited paper for a special issue on Jean Piaget.

First Page.

  1980

Bickhard, M. H. (1980). Cognition, Convention, and Communication. New York: Praeger Publishers.

Bickhard, M. H. (1980). A Model of Developmental and Psychological Processes. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 102, 61-116.

Bickhard, M. H. (1980). Approaches to the Study of Mind. Cognition and Brain Theory, 3, No. 4, 146-152.

Bickhard, M. H. (1980). Functionalism in Adlerian Psychology. Journal of Individual Psychology, 36, No. 1, 66-74.

Bickhard, M. H. (1980). On Models of Knowledge and Communication. In Maya Hickmann (Ed.) Proceedings of a Working Conference on the Social Foundations of Language and Thought. Center for Psychosocial Studies, Chicago.

Bickhard, M. H. (1980). Outline of a Theory of Psychological Processes. Unpublished manuscript edited and included in Piaget's Genetic Epistemology 1965-1980. R. Vuyk, New York: Academic Press.

First Page.

  1979

Bickhard, M. H. (1979). On Necessary and Specific Capabilities in Evolution and Development. Human Development, 22, 217-224.

Bickhard, M. H., Ford, B. L. (1979). Subjective Adaptationalism: An Adlerian metapsychology. Journal of Individual Psychology, 35, No. 2, 162-186.

First Page.

  1978

Bickhard, M. H. (1978). The Nature of Developmental Stages. Human Development, 21, 217-233.

Bickhard, M. H. (1978). A Reply to "Social Interest: A Reply to Bickhard and Ford." Journal of Individual Psychology, 34, No. 1, 27-35.

First Page.

  1977

Moore, N., Bickhard, M. H., Cooper, R. G. (1977). The Child's Development of the Concept of Family. Resources in Education and ERIC Document Reproduction Services.

First Page.

  1976

Bickhard, M. H., Ford, B. L. (1976). Adler's Concept of Social Interest: A critical explication. Journal of Individual Psychology, 32, No. 2, 27-49.

First Page.

Return to my home page.