^{1}
Chomsky showed that the age of the universe
is not long enough for children to learn all of the associative connections
that would be involved if language were associative (Chomsky, 1964). Clearly,
there is also insufficient time since the origin of the universe for children
to learn all of these beliefs -- insufficient time for children to solve the
frame problems -- yet children seem to manage this task quite well. Why don't
children have to solve the frame problems? The solution to *this* problem
turns out to be very *un*-Chomskyan.
^{2} Encodingism motivates methodological errors in addition to its
conceptual and theoretical errors; see Bickhard (1997), Bogartz, Shinskey,
& Speaker (1997), and Haith (1997).