(1) Mayflower Compact Signing
From: The World Book Encylopedia. New York:Field Enterprises Educational Corp. 13(1973)263.
A total of 41 adult men signed the Compact: leaders like Brewster, Bradford, and Carver; hired men such as John Alden; and bondslaves, some of whom could not write, but instead they made their mark.
(2) Embarkation of the Mayflower
From: Abrams, Ann Uhry. The Pilgrims and Pocohontas: Rival Myths of American Origins. Boulder:Westview Press, 1999 - page 150.
This 1844 engraving by Robert Weir depicts the departure of the Pilgrims from Leyden on the Speedwell. Pastor John Robinson is kneeling, surrounded by a semicircle of men, women, and children; at his right, in the center of the gathering, ruling elder William Brewster holds a Bible opened to the beginning of the New Testament. Adjacent to these principal figures are John Winslow, William Bradford, Miles Standish, and their wives.
(3) Map of New Plymouth
From: Willison, George F. Saints and Strangers. New York:Reynal & Hitchcock, 1945 - inside back cover.
The Colony of New Plymouth is shown as well as adjacent settlements; e.g., the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
(4) The Mayflower
From: Morison, Samuel Eliot. The Story of the Old Colony of Plymouth [1620-1692]. New York:Alfred A. Knopf, 1991 - page 29.
Rather old and tired after more than fourteen years as a cargo ship, the three-masted Mayflower was called a "sweet ship" because a recent shipment consisted of wine and cognac from France. Besides Captain Jones, there were two master's mates, four petty officers, a boatswain, a surgeon, a gunner, a cook, and twenty more seamen. The crew and the cook lived on the forward deck. On the opposite deck were the captain's quarters and the storage area for food. Some of the passengers slept on the shallop, a big boat stored on the gun deck. Double- or triple-tiered bunks were built, or hammocks slung, on the gun deck. There was little or no privacy.
(5) Interior of the Mayflower
From: Gill, Crispin. Mayflower Remembered: A History of the Plymouth Pilgrims. New York:Taplinger Publishing Co., 1970 - page 89.
An 180-ton square-rigger, the ship's overall length from bow to stern was ninety feet; her beam, twenty-five feet; the depth of her hold from the top deck to the inside of the keel, seventeen feet; and she drew (loaded) about two fathoms of water. The middle part of her main deck, which ran the full length of the ship (called the "waist"), was exposed to the weather. Below the main deck was the gun deck, with about five feet of headroom, and below the gun deck was the hold.
(6) Psalm 100 (click here for music)
From: Bartlett, Robert. The Faith of the Pilgrims: An American Heritage. New York:United Church Press, 1998 - page 275.
This hymn was sung by the Pilgrims in gladness and gratitude when they first sighted land at Cape Cod (Fleming 90). It was part of Ainsworth's Psalter, a 423-page book cherished by the Pilgrims in Leyden and Plymouth. They preferred it to the New Bay Psalm Book, published in 1640, and continued to use it in New England until after the Pilgrim settlement merged with the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1692. A copy of it was found in Brewster's library. It differs from the traditional English hymnal because it was created in Holland for a group of English refugees (Bartlett 115). Psalm-singing proved a boon to the settlers, a blessed release from their doubts and sorrows. Even without the organ, which they once enjoyed in England, and although they were without a choirmaster, they had dignity and glory in their voices. In the film, the Pilgrims sing Psalm 100 at the end of the voyage when land is first sighted (1:16:37).
(7) The Mayflower Returns to England
From: The World Book Encyclopedia. New York:Field Enterprises Educational Corp. 15(1973)519.
Despite the hardships and the loss of half the settlers during the Winter of 162, not one person chose to return to England when the Mayflower returned in the Spring of 1621.
(8) The Mayflower Compact
From: Bartlett, Robert. The Faith of the Pilgrims: An American Heritage. New York:United Church Press, 1998 - page 192.
This compact put an end to the idea that some of the company would "use their own liberty"; however, some of the settlers continued to mutter for some time. What is extremely extraordinary about this contract is that it established government, by consent, at a time when England's liberties were still conditioned by the remnants of feudalism. It was not "the cornerstone of American democracy," as some enthusiasts have claimed; equal votes and rights for all were some distance in the future, but it put down a sound foundation for local self-government. As John Quincy Adams stated in 1802, it was "the first example in modern times of a social compact or system of government instituted by voluntary agreement conformable to the laws of nature, by men of equal rights, about to establish their community in a new country" (Dillon 137).
Captions for Video Images
(1) The Mayflower (in color)
From: Gill, Crispin. Mayflower Remembered:A History of the Plymouth Pilgrims. New York: Taplinger Publishing Co., 1970 - front cover.
This classic representation of the Mayflower is one of the many paintings, engravings, and drawings of this ship.
(2) The Signing of the Compact in the Cabin of the Mayflower
From: Seelye, John. Memory's Nation:the Place of Plymouth Rock. Chapel Hill:U. of North Carolina P, 1999 - page 13.
(3) Women's Work
From: Seelye, John. Memory's Nation:The Place of Plymouth Rock. Chapel Hill:U of North Carolina P, 1999 - page 382.
The Pilgrim Fathers felt that educating girls was a vain, idle thing. Women should mind their own business, and that business was cooking, spinning and weaving, washing, sewing and mending, sweeping, curing meat, drying fruit, making soap, churning butter, tapping shoes, and bearing children--often. They were also expected to work in the fields, along with their children--preparing seed for planting, hoeing, weeding, reaping crops, storing the harvest, chopping wood, feeding the fires, carrying water, and caring for cows, goats, sheep, pigs, and chickens.
(4) Pilgrim Children
From: Morison, Samuel Eliot. The Story of the Old Colony of Plymouth [1620-1692]. New York:Alfred A. Knopf, 1991 - page 172.
The rate of infant mortality was appallingly high--the result of cold and drafty houses, poor nutrition, lack of medical knowledge and surgical care, and congenital weakness resulting from too frequent parenthood. A curious custom was for parents to swap children for a year or more.
(5) Pilgrims Going to Church
From: Morison, Samuel Eliot. The Story of the Old Colony of Plymouth [1620-1692]. New York:Alfred A. Knopf, 1991 - page 113.
The drummer in his formal costume sounded his summons, calling young and old to put on their Sunday best, hurry out into the village street, and form a line for the march to the top of the hill. Governor, Elder, and captain led the march, side by side, the chief magistrate's robe billowing in the breeze, the preacher in his cape, Bible and sermon notes in hand, and the military leader with his sword and cane.
(6) The Mayflower Compact
From: Usher, Roland G. The Pilgrims and their History. New York:The MacMillan Company, 1919 - frontispiece.
This view of the Compact is the handwritten version by William Bradford.
(7) William Bradford Welcomes Isaac de Rasieres to Plymouth
From: Morison, Samuel Eliot. The Story of the Old Colony of Plymouth [1620-1692]. New York:Alfred A. Knopf, 1991 - page 133.
de Raisiers was the secretary of the New Amsterdam Dutch Colony; in 1627 he and Governor Bradford set up a trading agreement: merchandise from Holland in exchange for furs from Plymouth.
(8) Portrait of Edward Winslow
From: Willison, George F. Saints and Strangers. New York:Reynal & Hitchcock, 1945 - frontispiece.
In 1651, in a moment of vanity, Winslow sat for his portrait; he appears to have liked the bustle of London and the larger stage there, becoming more and more a man of the world, though no less zealous as a Saint. This portrait is of interest for several reasons--it is the sole authentic Mayflower Pilgrim portrait in existence. In the Pilgrim records, there is not a word about their personal appearance or physical characteristics.
(9) Plymouth Rock
From: Bartlett, Robert M. The Faith of the Pilgrims:An American Heritage. New York:United Church Press, 1998 - page 193.
The first landing of the Pilgrims at Plymouth may well have been upon this historic rock, which made a convenient landing place at half tide (the only possible resemblance to the traditional image of the occasion). However, William Bradford, the eyewitness historian of the day, did not mention this rock.
(10) Landing of the Pilgrims
From: Seelye, John. Memory's Nation:The Place of Plymouth Rock. Chapel Hill:U of North Carolina P, 1999 - page 7.
This painting by Charles Lucy (ca. 1850) misrepresents Bradford's account of the landing; instead of armor and weapons, one settler carries a pick and shovel, suggesting, along with the presence of the women, the Pilgrims' thoroughly domestic purpose. The skull-capped man to the left, supported by a staff, is an elderly Elder Brewster (he was in his early fifties in 1620). The figure to the extreme right is probably Miles Standish, carrying his ailing wife, Rose. When the exploring party arrived at Plymouth in the shallop, there were no Indians to greet them; no women, no children by their sides; no Mayflower in the background--only an empty harbor and a barren, silent land (Fleming 135).
(11) Map of New Plymouth
From: Morison, Samuel Eliot. The Story of the Old Colony of Plymouth [1620-1692]. New York:Alfred A. Knopf, 1991 - inside cover.
This map shows the Colony of New Plymouth and adjacent settlements; e.g.., the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
Caption for Audio of Psalm 100
CD: America Sings - Volume 1 - The Founding Years. The Gregg Singers. Music from the Ainsworth and Bay Psalters.