N

NACS:
See: North American Container System
NAFTA:
See: North American Free Trade Agreement
National Carrier:
A for-hire certificated air carrier that has annual operating revenues of $75 million to $1 billion; the carrier usually operates between major population centers and areas of lesser population.
National Industrial Traffic League:
An association representing the interests of shippers and receivers in matters of transportation policy and regulation.
Nationalization:
Public ownership, financing, and operation of a business entity.
National Industrial Transportation League (NITL):
A national trade association of transportation providers.
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST):
A federal technology agency that develops and promotes measurement, standards, and technology within the United States.
National Motor Bus Operators Organization:
An industry association representing common and charter bus firms; now known as the American Bus Association.
National Motor Freight Classification (NMFC):
A tariff, which contains descriptions and classifications of commodities and rules for domestic movement by motor carriers in the U.S.
National Railroad Corporation:
Also known as Amtrak, the corporation established by the Rail Passenger Service Act of 1970 to operate most of the United States’ rail passenger service.
National Stock Number (NSN):
A 13-digit numeric code, identifying all the 'standardized material items of supply' as they have been recognized by the United States Department of Defense. Pursuant to the NATO Standardization Agreements (STANAGs), the NSN has come to be used in all treaty countries, where it is also known as a NATO Stock Number. Many countries that use the NSN program are not members of NATO i.e. Japan, Australia and New Zealand. A two-digit Material Management Aggregation Code (MMAC) suffix may also be appended, to denote asset end use but it is not considered part of the NSN. An item having an NSN is said to be "stock-listed".
Net Asset Turns:
The number of times you replenish your net assets in your annual sales cycle. A measure of how quickly assets are used to generate sales.Calculation: Total Product Revenue / Total Net Assets
Net Assets:
Total Net assets are calculated as Total Assets - Total Liabilities; where: The total assets are made up of fixed assets (plant, machinery and equipment) and current assets which is the total of stock, debtors and cash (also includes A/R, inventory, prepaid assets, deferred assets, intangibles and goodwill). The total liabilities are made up in much the same way of long-term liabilities and current liabilities (includes A/P, accrued expenses, deferred liabilities).
Net Change MRP:
An MRP or other planning system generation that recalculates requirements only for items that have changed since the last generation, due to the addition or changes in order quantities and dates, inventory levels, bill of material or routings, lead times or other parameters. A flag is usually set by programs that initiate changes for those items, which is used by MRP as the basis to regenerate them. It typically reduces generation time and is most useful for companies that have many part numbers, a small percentage of which are active in a given week. Antonym: Regeneration MRP.
Net Landed Costs:
The cost of the product in addition to the relevant logistics cost such as transportation and handling
Net Present Value (NPV):
A financial measure of performance for long term projects. The net present value is a calculation of a time series of future cash flows in today’s (current year) dollars.
Net Requirements:
The requirements for an item based on its gross requirements (from forecasts, customer orders or upper level demand), minus stock already on-hand and scheduled receipts.
Net Weight:
The weight of the merchandise, unpacked, exclusive of any containers.
Network Model:
A database model created to represent objects and their relationships in a flexible way.
Network Optimization:
A process or methodology to make a network as fully perfect, functional, effective or efficient as possible. The use of mathematics may be involved to find the best solution.
Network Planning:
An inventory distribution or transportation planning strategy which attempts to optimize the time/cost of travel or cost of holding inventory across multiple sites.
New Product Introduction (NPI):
A process that introduces a new product to the market from the idea stage to mass production sign-off of the final product.
NII:
See: Non Intrusive Inspection Technology
NIST:
See: National Institute of Standards and Technology
NITL:
See: National Industrial Transportation League
Nixie:
A direct mail letter which has been returned to the sender because the address was wrong. Also, any undelivered piece of mail. Nixies are used to correct a list.
NES:
See: Not otherwise specified/Not elsewhere specified
NMFC:
See: National Motor Freight Classification
Node:
A fixed point in a firm’s logistics system where goods come to rest; includes plants, warehouses, supply sources, and markets.
No Location (No Loc):
A received item for which the warehouse has no previously established storage slot.
Non-Certified Carrier:
A for-hire air carrier that is exempt from economic regulation.
Non-Compliance:
Failure or refusal to do as requested by higher authority or as prescribed by a set of rules that describe correct procedure to follow (i.e., rules on hazardous waste disposal).
Nonconformity:
A quality management event that captures the failure to meet specified inspection or testing requirements.
Non-Conveyable:
Materials which cannot be moved on a conveyor belt.
Non-Durable goods:
Goods whose service life is considered to be less than three years. See also: Durable Goods
Non-Intrusive Inspection technology (NII):
Originally developed to address the threat of smugglers using increasingly sophisticated techniques to conceal narcotics deep in commercial cargo and conveyances, NII systems, in many cases, give Customs inspectors the capability to perform thorough examinations of cargo without having to resort to the costly, time consuming process of unloading cargo for manual searches, or intrusive examinations of conveyances by methods such as drilling and dismantling.
Non-Vessel-Owning Common Carrier (NVOCC):
A firm that offers the same services as an ocean carrier, but which does not own or operate a vessel. NVOCCs usually act as consolidators, accepting small shipments (LCL) and consolidating them into full container loads. They also consolidate and disperse international containers that originate at or are bound for inland ports. They then act as a shipper, tendering the containers to ocean common carriers. They are required to file tariffs with the Federal Maritime Commission and are subject to the same laws and statutes that apply to primary common carriers.
North American Container System (NACS):
An Intermodal equipment program designed to facilitate the free interchange of domestic 48’ and 53’ containers between member railroads.
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA):
A free trade agreement, implemented January 1, 1994, between Canada, the United States and Mexico. It includes measures for the elimination of tariffs and non-tariff barriers to trade, as well as many more specific provisions concerning the conduct of trade and investment that reduce the scope for government intervention in managing trade.
NOS:
See: Not Otherwise Specified/Not Elsewhere Specified
Not Otherwise Specified / Not Elsewhere Specified (NOS/NES):
This term often appears in ocean or airfreight tariffs respectively. If no rate for the specific commodity shipped appears in the tariff, then a general class rate (for example: printed matter NES) will apply. Such rates usually are higher than rates for specific commodities.
NPI:
See: New Product Introduction
NPV:
See: Net Present Value
NSN:
See: National Stock Number
NVOCC:
See: Non-vessel Owning Common Carrier