M

M2M:
See: Machine-to-Machine Interface
Machine Downtimes:
Time during which a machine cannot be utilized. Machine downtimes may occur during breakdowns, maintenance, changeovers, etc.
Machine-to-Machine interface (M2M):
A term describing the process whereby machines are remotely monitored for status and problems reported and resolved automatically or maintenance scheduled by the monitoring systems.
Macro Environment:
1) Major external and uncontrollable factors that influence an organization's decision making, and affect its performance and strategies. These factors include the economic, demographics, legal, political, and social conditions, technological changes, and natural forces. 2) Factors that influence a company's or product's development but that are outside of the company's control. For example, the macro environment could include competitors, changes in interest rates, changes in cultural tastes, or government regulations.
Mainframe:
A term sometimes generically used to refer to an organization’s central computer system. Specifically the largest class of computer systems manufactured.
Maintenance, Repair, and Operating Supplies (MRO):
(1) Any activity – such as tests, measurements, replacements, adjustments and repairs — intended to retain or restore a functional unit in or to a specified state in which the unit can perform its required functions. (2) A category of software designed to support asset maintenance and management, also sometimes referred to as Computerized Maintenance Management Systems (CMMS)
Major Carrier:
A for-hire certificated air carrier that has annual operating revenues of $1 billion or more: the carrier usually operates between major population centers.
Make-or-Buy Decision:
Business decision that compares the costs and benefits of manufacturing a product or product component against purchasing it. If the purchase price is higher than what it would cost the manufacturer to make it, or if the manufacturer has excess capacity that could be used for that product, or the manufacturer's suppliers are unreliable, then the manufacturer may choose to make the product. This assumes the manufacturer has the necessary skills and equipment necessary, access to raw materials, and the ability to meet its own product standards. A company who chooses to make rather than buy is at risk of losing alternative sources, design flexibility, and access to technological innovations.
Make-to-Order (MTO):
Also called “Manufacture-to-order”. A manufacturing process strategy where the trigger to begin manufacture of a product is an actual customer order or release, rather than a market forecast. For Make-to-Order products, more than 20% of the value-added takes place after the receipt of the order or release, and all necessary design and process documentation is available at time of order receipt.
Make-to-Stock (MTS):
Also called Manufacture-to-stock. A manufacturing process strategy where finished product is continually held in plant or warehouse inventory to fulfill expected incoming orders or releases based on a forecast.
Mail Shop:
An service provider which specializes in preparing materials for mailing by affixing labels, sorting for bulk rates, preparing bag tags, bagging, etc..
Manifest:
A document which describes individual orders contained within a shipment.
Manufacturer’s Representative:
An individual or organizations which provides sales and marketing services for one or more other firms who actually manufacture the product. A manufacturer’s rep typically does not take ownership of the products, and in many cases does not even handle them. See: Drop Ship
Manufacturing Calendar:
A tool used in the production environment to note capacity available by working day. While it may resemble the traditional calendar with a representation of month and days, the unique features are the units of capacity available and the ability to block specific days, shifts or work periods. Calendars are set by work center to allow for differing schedules. Synonyms: M-Day Calendar, Planning Calendar, Production Calendar, Shop Calendar.
Manufacturing Capital Asset Value:
The asset value of the "Manufacturing fixed assets" after allowance for depreciation. Examples of equipment are SMT placement machines, conveyors, Auto guided vehicles, robot cells, testers, X-ray solder machines, Burn-in chambers, Logic testers, Auto packing equipment, PLC station controllers, Scanning equipment, PWB magazines.
Manufacturing Critical-Path Time (MCT):
The typical amount of calendar time from when a manufacturing order is created through the critical-path until the first, single piece of that order is delivered to the customer.
Manufacture Cycle Time:
The average time between commencement and completion of a manufacturing process, as it applies to make-to-stock or make-to-order products. Typically does not include engineering or testing time.
Calculation: [Average # of units in WIP] / [Average daily output in units]
Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES):
A system designed to manage and monitor work-in-process on the factory floor including manual or automatic labor and production reporting, as well as on-line inquiries and links to tasks that take place on the production floor. Manufacturing Execution Systems may include one or more links to work orders, receipt of goods, shipping, quality control, maintenance, scheduling or other related tasks.
Manufacturing Lead Time:
The total length of time used to process raw materials and components through all upper levels in the bill of material to an end item. It specifies the total of all individual elements of lead time—such as order preparation, queue, setup, run, inspection, etc.—used for and indicative of a projected availability date for an end item if all lowest level raw material is on hand. Also see: Lead Time
Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP II):
The extension of closed-loop MRP that includes and integrates financial and simulation systems. It includes all organizational functions related to long-term strategic and business planning, demand planning, materials planning, resource planning, and production and vendor scheduling and execution. It assumes the use of a base, integrated system and the sharing of a common database and operating parameters by all functions and departments.
Mapping:
A computer term referring to diagramming of data that is to be exchanged electronically, including how it is to be used and what business management systems need it. Preliminary step for developing an applications link. Performed by the functional manager responsible for a business management system.
Margin Analysis:
The accounting activity of analyzing the various elements contributing to the margin or difference between revenue and costs.
Marginal Cost:
The cost to produce one additional unit of output. The change in total variable cost resulting from a one-unit change in output.
Marine insurance:
Insurance to protect against cargo loss and damage when shipping by water transportation.
Maritime Administration:
A federal agency that promotes the merchant marine, determines ocean ship routes and services, and awards maritime subsidies.
Maritime Transportation Security Act (MTSA):
Law passed in 2002 to create a comprehensive national system of transportation security enhancements. The MTSA designated the U.S. Coast Guard as the lead federal agency for maritime homeland security and requires federal agencies, ports, and vessel owners to take numerous steps to upgrade security. The MTSA requires the Coast Guard to develop national and regional area maritime transportation security plans and requires seaports, waterfront terminals, and vessels to submit security and incident response plans to the Coast Guard for approval. The MTSA also requires the Coast Guard to conduct antiterrorism assessments of certain foreign ports.
Market Demand:
Estimated demand for a product or service within a given market demographic and time period.
Market Discovery Process:
An evaluation and determination of attractive markets (by size and entry requirements).
Market Dominance:
In transportation rating this refers to the absence of effective competition for railroads from other carriers and modes for the traffic to which the rate applies. The Staggers Act of 1980 stated that market dominance does not exist if the rate is below the revenue-to-variable-cost ratio of 160% in 1981 and 170% in 1983.
Market Intelligence:
The process of gathering and analyzing information about a company’s market to better understand customer’s wants and needs and to identify possible threats and opportunities to the company.
Market Segment:
Market Segment: a group of people or organizations sharing one or more characteristics causing them to have similar product and/or service needs. A true market segment meets all of the following criteria: it is distinct from other segments (different segments have different needs), it is homogeneous within the segment (exhibits common needs); it responds similarly to a market stimulus, and it can be reached by a market intervention. The term is also used when consumers with identical product and/or service needs are divided up into groups so they can be charged different amounts. These can broadly be viewed as 'positive' and 'negative' applications of the same idea, splitting up the market into smaller groups.
Market Share:
The portion of the overall market demand for a specific product or service which is provided by any single provider.
Market Strategy:
A guide developed for an organization that details how to concentrate its limited resources on the greatest opportunities to increase sales and achieve a sustainable competitive advantage.
Market-Positioned Warehouse:
Warehouse positioned to replenish customer inventory assortments and to afford maximum inbound transport consolidation economies from inventory origin points with relatively short-haul local delivery.
Marks and Numbers:
Identifying marks and numbers affixed to or placed on goods used to identify a shipment or parts of a shipment.
Marquis Partners:
Key strategic relationships. This has emerged as perhaps the key competitive advantage and barrier to entry of e-marketplaces. Get the big players in the fold first, offering equity if necessary.
Marshaller or Marshalling Agent:
This is a service unique to international trade and relates to an individual or firm that specializes in one or more of the activities preceding Main Carriage, such as consolidation, packing, marking, sorting of merchandise, inspection, storage, etc. References state that Marshaling Agent, Consolidation Agent and Freight Forwarder all have the same meaning.
Mass Customization:
A phrase used in marketing, manufacturing, call centers and management referring to the use of flexible computer-aided manufacturing systems to produce custom output. Those systems combine the low unit costs of mass production processes with the flexibility of individual customization. At its core is a tremendous increase in variety and customization without a corresponding increase in costs.
Master Pack:
A large box that is used to pack a number of smaller boxes or containers. Aids in protecting the smaller cartons or packages and reduces the number of cartons to be handled during the material handling process.
Master Production Schedule (MPS):
The master level or top level schedule used to set the production plan in a manufacturing facility.
Material Acquisition Costs:
One of the elements comprising a company's total supply-chain management costs. These costs consist of the following:1. Materials (Commodity) Management and Planning: All costs associated with supplier sourcing, contract negotiation and qualification, and the preparation, placement, and tracking of a purchase order, including all costs related to buyer/planners.2. Supplier Quality Engineering: The costs associated with the determination, development/certification, and monitoring of suppliers' capabilities to fully satisfy the applicable quality and regulatory requirements.3. Inbound Freight and Duties: Freight costs associated with the movement of material from a vendor to the buyer and the associated administrative tasks. Duties are those fees and taxes levied by government for moving purchased material across international borders. Customs broker fees should also be considered in this category.4. Receiving and Put Away: All costs associated with taking possession of material and storing it. Note that carrying costs are not a part of acquisition, and inspection is handled separately.5. Incoming Inspection: All costs associated with the inspection and testing of received materials to verify compliance with specifications.6. Material Process and Component Engineering: Those tasks required to document and communicate component specifications, as well as reviews to improve the manufacturability of the purchased item.7. Tooling: Those costs associated with the design, development, and depreciation of the tooling required to produce a purchased item. A tooling cost would be incurred by a company if they actually paid for equipment and/or maintenance for a contract manufacturer that makes their product. Sometimes, there aren't enough incentive for a contract manufacturer to upgrade plant equipment to a level of quality that a company requires, so the company will pay for the upgrades and maintenance to ensure high quality. May not be common in some industries such as the Chemicals
Material Index:
The ratio of the sum of the localized raw material weights to the weight of the finished product.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS):
A form containing data regarding the properties of a particular substance. An important component of product stewardship and workplace safety, it is intended to provide workers and emergency personnel with procedures for handling or working with that substance in a safe manner, and includes information such as physical data (melting point, boiling point, flash point, etc.), toxicity, health effects, first aid, reactivity, storage, disposal, protective equipment, and spill handling procedures. The exact format of an MSDS can vary from source to source within a country depending on how specific is the national requirement. Also see: Hazardous Materials
Materials Handling:
The physical handling of products and materials between procurement and shipping.
Materials Management:
Inbound logistics from suppliers through the production process. The movement and management of materials and products from procurement through production.
Materials Planning:
The materials management function that attempts to coordinate the supply of materials with the demand for materials.
Material Requirements Planning (MRP):
A decision-making methodology used to determine the timing and quantities of materials to purchase.
Maturity Level:
An identifiable stage, defined in terms of process features, towards achieving a mature process. Maturity levels are commonly represented in 5 stages, for example the SEI Capability Maturity Model defines the following levels – Ad Hoc, Repeatable, Definable, Managed, and Optimized.
Measure:
A number used to quantify a metric, showing the result of part of a process often resulting from a simple count. Example: Number of units shipped.
Metrics:
See: Performance Measures
Matrix Organizational Structure:
A type of organizational management in which people with similar skills are pooled for work assignments. For example, all engineers may be in one engineering department and report to an engineering manager, but these same engineers may be assigned to different projects and report to a project manager while working on that project. Therefore, each engineer may have to work under several managers to get their job done.
MAX:
The lowest inventory quantity that is desired at a ship to location or selling location. This quantity will over-ride the forecast number if the forecast climbs above the MAX. Maximum stock
Maximum Competitive Tension:
Market analysis and intelligence development that describes the different pressures that can be exerted on competitors.
Maximum Inventory:
The prescribed maximum level of inventory allowed for a specific item. Set into the item database, it is used in min/max calculations.
Maximum Order Quantity:
The maximum quantity allowed when ordering a specific item. Typically a value which is calculated and set into the system for a period of time.
m-Commerce:
Mobile commerce applications involve using a mobile phone to carry out financial transactions. This usually means making a payment for goods or transferring funds electronically. Transferring money between accounts and paying for purchases are electronic commerce applications. An emerging application, electronic commerce has been facilitated by developments in other areas in the mobile world, such as dual slot phones and other smarter terminals and more standardized protocols, which allow greater interactivity and therefore more sophisticate services.
M-Day Calendar:
See: Manufacturing Calendar
Mean:
For a data set, the mean is the sum of the observations divided by the number of observations.
Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF):
The average time between failures in a system.
Measure:
A number used to quantify a metric, showing the result of part of a process often resulting from a simple count. An example can be the number of units shipped.
Measurement Plans:
A tool through which can evaluate the success of a program on an ongoing basis.
Measurement Ton:
Equals 40 cubic feet; used in water transportation rate making.
Median:
A median is described as the number separating the higher half of a sample, a population, or a probability distribution, from the lower half. It is the mid-point of the list of numbers as opposed to the average.
MES:
See: Manufacturing Execution Systems
Merge In Transit:
The process of combining or "merging" shipments from multiple suppliers which are going directly to the buyer or to the store, bypassing the seller. Effectively this is a "drop shipment" from several vendors to one buyer, which is being combined at an intermediary point prior to delivery.
Merger:
The combination of two or more carriers into one company for the ownership, management, and operation of the properties previously operated on a separate basis.
Message:
The EDIFACT term for a transaction set. A message is the collection of data, organized in segments, exchanged by trading partners engaged in EDI. Typically, a message is an electronic version of a document associated with a common business transaction, such as a purchase order or shipping notice. A message begins with a message header segment, which identifies the start of the message (e.g., the series of characters representing one purchase order). The message header segment also carries the message type code, which identifies the business transaction type. EDIFACT's message header segment is called UNH; in ANSI X12 protocol, the message header is called ST. A message ends with a message trailer segment, which signals the end of the message (e.g., the end of one purchase order). EDIFACT's message trailer is labeled UNT; the ANSI X12 message trailer is referred to as SE.
Meta Tag:
An optional HTML tag that is used to specify information about a web document. Some search engines use "spiders" to index web pages. These spiders read the information contained within a page's META tag. So in theory, an HTML or web page author has the ability to control how their site is indexed by search engines and how and when it will "come up" on a user's search. The META tag can also be used to specify an HTTP or URL address for the page to "jump" to after a certain amount of time. This is known as Client-Pull. What this means, is a web page author can control the amount of time a web page is up on the screen as well as where the browser will go next.
Metrics:
Specific areas of measurement. A metric must be quantitative, must support benchmarking, and must be based on broad, statistically valid data. Therefore, it must exist in a format for which published data exists within the enterprise or industry. See: Performance Measures
Micro-Land Bridge:
An intermodal movement in which the shipment is moved from a foreign country to the U.S. by water and then moved across the U.S. by railroad to an interior, non-port city, or vice versa for exports from a non-port city.
Middleware:
A type ofsoftware that is able to connect disparate software components or applications. Typically used to provided a level of integration between software components where were acquired from different developers.
MIIL Specs:
Military Specifications.
Milestone:
The set of specific deadlines or measurement / decisions points which are used to progress in completing an Initiative. Milestones include specific completion dates or rates.
Mileage Allowance:
An allowance based upon distance and given by railroads to shippers using private rail cars.
Mileage Rate:
A rate based upon the number of miles the commodity is shipped.
Milk Run:
Delivery method for mixed loads from different suppliers. Instead of each of several (say 5) suppliers sending a vehicle every week to meet the weekly needs of a customer, one vehicle visits each supplier on a daily basis and picks up deliveries for that customer. This way, while still five vehicle loads are shipped every week, each vehicle load delivers the full daily requirements of the customer from each supplier. This method gets its name from the dairy industry practice where one tanker collects milk every day from several dairy farmers for delivery to a milk processing firm. Also see: Consolidation
Min – Max System:
A replenishment and inventory management system that sets a minimum inventory level, used to trigger a reorder when the available plus incoming receipt total is less than the min. The amount of the order is the difference between the calculated (less than min) inventory and a predefined max. Min-max systems are typically not time-phased.
Mini-Land Bridge:
An intermodal movement in which the shipment is moved from a foreign country to the U.S. by water and then moved across the U.S. by railroad to a destination that is a port city, or vice versa for exports from a U.S. port city.
Minimum Weight:
The shipment weight specified by the carrier’s tariff as the minimum weight required to use the TL or CL rate; the rate discount volume.
Mirroring:
A computer term that describes an exact copy of a data set.
Misguided Capacity Plans:
Plans or forecasts for capacity utilization, which are based on inaccurate assumptions or input data.
Mistake Proofing:
See: Poka Yoke
Mitigation Strategies:
Additional efforts required in the event management must take action to lower the likelihood of risk occurring and/or minimize the impact on the program if the risk did occur.
Mixed Loads:
The movement of both regulated and exempt commodities in the same vehicle at the same time.
Modal Split:
The relative use made of the modes of transportation; the statistics used include ton-miles, passenger-miles, and revenue.
Mode:
See: Transportation Mode
Modular Product/Service:
A product or service which can be acquired as individual parts or assembled into a group.
MOTE:
(as in reMOTE) A wireless receiver/transmitter that is typically combined with a sensor of some type to create a remote sensor. Motes are being used in ocean containers to look for evidence of tampering. They have huge application in food, pharma, and other “cold chain” industries to closely monitor temperature, humidity and other factor.
Motor Carrier:
An enterprise that offers service via land motor carriage.
Move Ticket:
A document used to move inventory within a facility. Warehouse management systems use move tickets to direct and track material movements. In a paperless environment the electronic version of a move ticket is often called a task or a trip.
MPS:
See: Master Production Schedule
MRO:
See: Maintenance, Repair, and Operating Supplies
MRP:
See: Material Requirements Planning
MRP-II:
See: Manufacturing Resource Planning
MSDS:
See: Material Safety Data Sheet
MTBF:
See: Mean Time Between Failures
MTO:
See: Make to Order
MTS:
See: Make to Stock
MTSA:
See: Maritime Transportation Security Act
Muda:
A Japanese term for waste, used in Lean Management.
Multi-Currency:
The ability to process orders using a variety of currencies for pricing and billing.
Multinational Company:
A company that both produces and markets products in different countries.
Multiple-Car Rate:
A railroad rate that is lower for shipping more than one carload rather than just one carload at a time.
Multi-Skilled:
Pertaining to individuals who are certified to perform a variety of tasks.
Mura:
Japanese for inconsistency or uneveness in a process.
Muri:
Japanese for straining or overburdening a process.