Game Theory:
A branch of applied mathematics that is used in the social sciences, most notably in economics, as well as in biology, engineering, political science, international relations, computer science, and philosophy. Game theory attempts to mathematically capture behavior in strategic situations, in which an individual's success in making choices depends on the choices of others, a sort of “Win-Win” stragegy.
Gaming the System:
Using rules, policies and procedures of a system against itself for purposes outside what of those rules, policies and procedures were initially intended.
Gain Sharing:
A method of incentive compensation where supply chain partners share collectively in savings from productivity improvements. The concept provides an incentive to both the buying and supplier organizations to focus on continually re-evaluating, re-energizing, and enhancing their business relationship. All aspects of value delivery are scrutinized including specification design, order processing, inbound transportation, inventory management, obsolescence programs, material yield, forecasting and inventory planning, product performance, and reverse logistics. The focus is on driving out limited value cost while protecting profit margins. Also see:Performance Based Logistics.
Gap Analysis:
The process of determining and documenting the variance (gap) between goals and current performance.
The connection that permits messages to flow freely between two networks.
Gathering Lines:
Oil pipelines that bring oil from the oil well to storage areas.
See: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
See: Global Commerce Initiative
See: Global Data Synchronization Network
Gemba Kanri:
A Lean management term which refers to the control and improvment of the value creating processes.
Genchi Genbutsu:
A Japanese phrase used in Lean management which means "Go and see for yourself" Rather than simply hear or read about a problem and make a suggestion for improvement, one should actually go to its direct location and experience the situation first hand.
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT):
The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade started as an international trade organization in 1947, and has been superseded by the World Trade Organization (WTO). GATT (the agreement) covers international trade in goods. An updated General Agreement is now the WTO agreement governing trade in goods. The 1986-1994 “Uruguay Round” of GATT member discussions gave birth to the WTO and also created new rules for dealing with trade in services, relevant aspects of intellectual property, dispute settlement, and trade policy reviews. GATT 1947: The official legal term for the old (pre-1994) version of the GATT. GATT 1994: The official legal term for new version of the General Agreement, incorporated into the WTO, and including GATT 1947.
General Commodities Carrier:
A common motor carrier that has operating authority to transport general commodities, or all commodities not listed as special commodities.
General-Merchandise Warehouse:
A warehouse that is used to store goods that are readily handled, are packaged, and do not require a controlled environment.
General Order (GO):
A customs term referring to a warehouse where merchandise not entered within five working days after the carrier's arrival is stored at the risk and expense of the importer.
See: Graphics Interchange Format
Global Commerce Initiative (GCI):
A business requirements group that brings manufacturers and retailers together on a worldwide basis to simplify and enhance global commerce and improve consumer value in the overall retail supply chain. It is a global user group, and its charter is to drive the implementation of EAN.UCC standards and best practices.
Global Data Synchronization Network (GDSN):
The GDSN is an Internet-based, interconnected network of interoperable data pools and a Global Registry, the GS1 Global Registry that enables companies around the world to exchange standardized and synchronized supply chain data with their trading partners.
Global Location Number (GLN):
Unique location number mandatory within the Global Data Synchronization process to identify data owners/info providers, etc such as Distributors, brokers, manufacturers.
Global Positioning System (GPS):
A system which uses satellites to precisely locate an object on earth. Used by truck­ing companies to locate over-the-road equipment.
Global Standards Management Process (GSMP):
The Global Standards Management Process (GSMP) is the Global Process established in January 2002 by EAN International and the Uniform Code Council, Inc. (UCC) for the development and maintenance of Global Standards and Global Implementation Guidelines that are part of the EAN.UCC system.
Global Strategy:
An organization's strategic guide to globalization. A global strategy may be appropriate in industries where firms are faced with strong pressures for cost reduction but with weak pressures for local responsiveness. Therefore, the strategy allows these firms to sell a standardized product worldwide. However, fixed costs (capital equipment) are substantial. Nevertheless, these firms are able to take advantage of scale economies and experience curve effects, because of the ability to mass-produce a standard product which can be exported—providing that demand is greater than the costs involved.
Global Trade Item Number (GTIN):
A unique number that comprises up to 14 digits and is used to identify an item (product or service) for which there is a need to retrieve pre-defined information that may be priced, ordered or invoiced at any point in the supply chain. The definition covers raw materials through end user products and includes services, all of which have pre-defined characteristics. GTIN is the globally-unique EAN.UCC System identification number, or key, used for trade items (products and serv­ices). It’s used for uniquely identifying trade items (products and services) sold, delivered, warehoused, and billed throughout the retail and commercial distribution channels. Unlike a UPC number, which only provides information specific to a group of products, the GTIN gives each product its own specific iden­tifying number, providing greater trcking accuracy. See: EPC
The process of making something worldwide in scope or application.
See: Global Location Number
Going-concern value:
The value that a firm has as an entity, as opposed to the sum of the values of each of its parts taken separately; particularly important in determining what constitutes a reasonable railroad rate.
A rail car with a flat platform and sides three to five feet high; used for top loading of items that are long and heavy.
Good Distribution Practices:
Quality warranty system that provides guidelines for the proper distribution of medicinal products for human use. The guidelines cover such areas as requirements for purchase, receiving, storage, and export of drugs intended for human consumption. Good Distribution Practices are based on the Code of Federal Regulations 21 CFR, parts 210 and 211, and USP 1079.
Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP):
Requirements governing the quality procedures of medical device manufacturers. Good Manufacturing Practices are based on the Code of Federal Regulations 21 CFR, parts 808, 812, and 820.
Goods Received Note (GRN):
Documentation raised by the recipient of materials or products.
See: Good Manufacturing Practices
See: Gross National Product
See: General Order
A term associated with more than one definition: 1) Common term indicating movable property, merchandise, or wares. 2) All materials which are used to satisfy demands. 3) Whole or part of the cargo received from the shipper, including any equipment supplied by the shipper.
See: Global Positioning System
Grandfather clause:
A provision that enabled motor carriers engaged in lawful trucking operations before the passage of the Motor Carrier Act of 1935 to secure common carrier authority without proving public convenience and necessity; a similar provision exists for other modes.
Granger laws:
State laws passed before 1870 in Midwestern states to control rail transportation.
Graphics Interchange Format (GIF):
A graphical file format commonly used to display indexed-color images on the World Wide Web. GIF is a compressed format, designed to minimize file transfer time over standard phone lines.
Great Lakes Carriers:
Water carriers that operate on the five Great lakes.
Green Strategy:
comprehensive management plans that have the final goal of achieving environmental and economic sustainability. They are integrated, all-inclusive strategies that replace traditional single-issue policies. See: Sustainability
Greenhouse Gas Emissions:
The release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere by human activities. Greenhouse Gases are identified as water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone.
Grid Technique:
A quantitative technique to determine the least-cost center, given raw materials sources and markets, for locating a plant or warehouse.
See: Goods Received Note
Green Field:
A method used to launch a new process or initiative where no others of that type have previously existed.
A concept that would give C-TPAT members that demonstrate the highest standard of secure practices additional benefits for exceeding the minimum requirements of the program. GreenLane benefits would include expedited movement of cargo, especially during an incident of national significance.
A situation in which critical information is withheld from the team because individual members censor or restrain themselves, either because they believe their concerns are not worth discussing or because they are afraid of confrontation.
Gross Inventory:
Value of inventory at standard cost before any reserves for excess and obsolete items are taken.
Gross Margin:
The amount of contribution to the business enterprise, after paying for direct-fixed and direct-variable unit costs, required to cover overheads (fixed commitments) and provide a buffer for unknown items. It expresses the relationship between gross profit and sales revenue.
Gross National Product (GNP):
A measure of a nation’s output; the total value of all final goods and services produced during a period of time.
Gross Weight:
The total weight of the vehicle and the payload of freight or passengers.
The new name of EAN International. The GS1 US is the new name of the Uniform Code Council, Inc® (UCC®) the GS1 Member Organization for the U.S., the association that administrates UCS, WINS, and VICS and provides UCS identification codes and UPCs. GS1 subgroups also manage the standards for electronic product codes (EPCGlobal) and Rosettnet.
See: Global Trade Item Number
Global Trade Management.
Guaranteed Loans:
Loans made to railroads that are cosigned and guaranteed by the federal government.