Dangerous Goods:
Articles or substances capable of posing significant health, safety, or environmental risk, and that ordinarily require special attention including packaging and labeling when stored or transported. Also referred to as Hazardous Goods or Hazardous Materials (HazMat).
A performance measurement tool used to capture a summary of the key performance indicators (KPIs)/metrics of a company. Metrics dashboards/scorecards should be easy to read and feature “red, yellow, green” indicators to flag when metrics targets are not being met. Ideally, a dashboard/scorecard should be cross-functional in nature and include both financial and non-financial measures. In addition, scorecards should be reviewed regularly—at least on a monthly basis—and weekly for key functions—such as manufacturing and distribution—where activities are critical to the success of a company. The dashboard/scorecards philosophy can also be applied to external supply chain partners (such as suppliers) to ensure that supplier’s objectives and practices align. Synonym: Scorecard.
Data Cleansing:
The process of detecting and cleaning inaccurate, incomplete, incorrect, and irrelevant records in a data set. The records are deleted, modified or replaced as needed.
Date Code:
An identification applied to a product container or label which provides the specific date of production of the contents. Sometimes it is an actual date, but frequently it is coded for internal purposes. Date codes are often used during product recalls.
Data Communications:
The electronic transmission of data, usually in computer readable form, using a variety of transmission vehicles and paths.
Data Dictionary:
Lists the data elements for which standards exist. The Joint Electronic Document Interchange (JEDI) committee developed a data dictionary that is employed by many EDI users.
Data Field Formatting:
The parameters placed on a column within a database or data entry form on a website. An example of a parameter would be the 8 character limitation for any text entered into a particular data field.
Data Integration:
The process of integrating data residing in different sources, and creating a unified view of the data for users.
Data Integrity:
Assurance that the data is “whole” or complete. The data integrity perseveres during retrieval, storage, and transfer. In database management, it refers to the process of ensuring the data accurately reflects the environment it is modeling or representing.
Data Interchange Standards Association (DISA):
The secretariat, which provides clerical and administrative support to the ASC X12 Committee.
Data Mining:
The process of extracting and analyzing data, typically from a computer database, to gather knowledge about hidden patterns or unknown relationships in order to achieve specific business objectives.
Data Pool:
A repository of Data within the Global Data Synchronisation Network where trading partners can obtain, maintain and exchange information on items and parties in a standard format through electronic means.
Data Steward:
The person responsible for maintaining consistency and precise of data during exchanges between computer systems.
Data Warehouse:
A storage architecture designed to hold data extracted from transaction systems, operational data stores and external sources. A repository of an organization’s electronically stored data designed in such a way as to facilitate reporting and analysis, the warehouse combines data in an aggregate, summary form suitable for enterprise-wide data analysis and reporting for predefined business needs.
Data stored in computer-readable form, usually indexed or sorted in a logical order by which users can find a particular item of data they need.
Days of Supply:
Measure of quantity of inventory-on-hand, in relation to number of days for which usage which will be covered. For example, if a component is consumed in sales or manufacturing at the rate of 100 per day, and there are 1,585 units available on-hand, this represents 15.85 days supply. The goal, in most cases, is to demonstrate efficiency through having a high turnover rate and therefore a low days’ inventory. However, realize that this ratio can be unfavorable if either too high or too low. A company must balance the cost of carrying inventory with its unit and acquisition costs, with the potential of lost business and ultimately lost customers if shortages are pervasive.
Days' Inventory:
See: Days of Supply
Days Payable Outstanding (DPO):
is an estimate of the length of time the company takes to pay its vendors after receiving inventory. If the firm receives favorable terms from suppliers, it has the net effect of providing the firm with free financing. If terms are reduced and the company is forced to pay at the time of receipt of goods, it reduces financing by the trade and increases the firm's working capital requirements. It is calculated: Days Payable Outstanding = 365 / Payables Turnover (Payables Turnover = Purchases / Payables).
Days Sales Outstanding (DSO):
also known as Collection Period (period average), is a financial indicator that shows both the age, in terms of days, of a company's accounts receivable and the average time it takes to turn the receivables into cash. It is compared to company and industry averages, as well as company selling terms (e.g., Net 30) for determination of acceptability by the company. DSO is calculated: DSO = (Total Receivables/Total Credit Sales in the Period Analyzed) x Number of Days in the Period Analyzed. Note: Only credit sales are to be used. Cash sales are excluded.
See: Drum-Buffer-Rope
See: Distribution Center
DC Bypass:
Also known as "Direct to Store" is a practice that occurs when vendors ship goods directly to the retail store instead of to the retailer's distribution center (DC).
Dead on Arrival (DOA):
A term used to describe products which are not functional when delivered. Synonym: Defective.
The return of an empty transportation container back to a transportation facility. Commonly used description of an empty backhaul. See: backhauling.
The total lifting capacity of a ship expressed in tons of 2240 lbs. It is the difference between the displacement light (without cargo, passengers, fuel, etc.) and the displacement loaded.
Decentralized Authority:
A situation in which management decision-making authority is given to managers at many levels in the organizational hierarchy.
Decision Support System (DSS):
Software that speeds access and simplifies data analysis, queries, etc. within a database management system.
Declaration of Dangerous Goods:
To comply with the U.S. regulations, exporters are required to provide special notices to inland and ocean transport companies when goods are hazardous.
Declared Value:
The value of the goods, declared by the shipper on a bill of lading, for the purpose of determining a freight rate or the limit of the carrier's liability. Also used by customs as the basis for calculation of duties, etc.
A forecasting practice which separates time series data are separated into two or more component series which are each forecasted individually and them re-composited to product a final forecast. Useful where the individual components are subject to varying trends.
Dedicated Contract Carriage:
A third-party service that dedicates equipment (vehicles) and drivers to a single customer for its exclusive use on a contractual basis.
Defect Analysis:
A combination of flaw detection—so they may be removed from the product or process—and analysis of defects and errors received—to prevent future defects in the product or process.
Defective Goods Inventory (DGI):
Those items that have been returned, have been delivered damaged and have a freight claim outstanding, or have been damaged in some way during warehouse handling.
Defense Acquisition Executive:
Defense Automatic Addressing System:
Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement:
Defense Finance and Accounting Service:
Defense Logistics Agency (DLA):
A possible source of supply.
Defense Working Capital Fund (DWCF):
funding for PBL programs.
1) ASCII, characters which are used to separate data elements within a data stream. 2) EDI, two levels of separators and a terminator that are integrals part of a transferred data stream. Delimiters are specified in the interchange header. From highest to lowest level, the separators and terminator are segment terminator, data element separator, and component element separator (used only in EDIFACT).
Delivery Appointment:
The time agreed upon between two enterprises for goods or transportation equipment to arrive at a selected location. Typically used to help plan warehouse and receiving / inspection operations and to manage backup of carriers at loading docks.
Supplier/manufacturer arrangement in which suppliers are responsible for the transport of the goods they have produced, which is being sent to a manufacturer. This responsibility includes tasks such as ensuring products get through Customs.
Delivery Performance to Commit Date:
The percentage of orders that are fulfilled on or before the internal Commit date, used as a measure of internal scheduling systems effectiveness. Delivery measurements are based on the date a complete order is shipped or the ship-to date of a complete order. A complete order has all items on the order delivered in the quantities requested. An order must be complete to be considered fulfilled. Multiple line items on a single order with different planned delivery dates constitute multiple orders, and multiple planned delivery dates on a single line item also constitute multiple orders.Calculation: [Total number of orders delivered in full and on time to the scheduled commit date] / [Total number of orders delivered]
Delivery Performance to Request Date:
The percentage of orders that are fulfilled on or before the customer's requested date used as a measure of responsiveness to market demand. Delivery measurements are based on the date a complete order is shipped or the ship-to date of a complete order. A complete order has all items on the order delivered in the quantities requested. An order must be complete to be considered fulfilled. Multiple line items on a single order with different planned delivery dates constitute multiple orders, and multiple planned delivery dates on a single line item also constitute multiple orders.Calculation: [Total number of orders delivered in full and on time to the customer's request date] / [Total number of orders delivered]
Delphi Method:
A systematic forecasting method which relies on a panel of independent experts providing answers to questionnaires in two or more rounds in an effort to gain a consensus opinion.
Delta Nu Alpha:
A professional association of transportation and traffic practitioners.
What customers or users actually want. Typically associated with the consumption of products or services as opposed to a prediction or forecast.
Demand Based Production:
When inventory is “pulled” through production a work center only when needed to satisfy customer a customer requirement.
Demand Chain:
Another name for the supply chain, but emphasizing customer or end-user demand pulling materials and product through the chain.
Demand Chain Management:
Same as supply chain management, but emphasizing consumer pull versus supplier push.
Demand-Driven Supply Network (DDSN):
A system of technologies and processes that sense and react to real-time demand across a network of customers, suppliers and employees. In other words, a consumer purchase triggers real-time information movement throughout the supply network, which then initiates movement of product through the network.
Demand Management:
The proactive compilation of requirements information regarding demand (i.e., customers, sales, marketing, finance) and the firm's capabilities from the supply side (i.e., supply, operations and logistics management); the development of a consensus regarding the ability to match the requirements and capabilities; and the agreement upon a synthesized plan that can most effectively meet the customer requirements within the constraints imposed by supply chain capabilities.
Demand Planning:
The process of identifying, aggregating, and prioritizing, all sources of demand for the integrated supply chain of a product or service at the appropriate level, horizon, and interval. The sales forecast is comprised of the following concepts:1. The sales forecasting level is the focal point in the corporate hierarchy where the forecast is needed at the most generic level (i.e., corporate forecast, divisional forecast, product line forecast, SKU, and SKU by location).2. The sales forecasting time horizon generally coincides with the time frame of the plan for which it was developed (i.e., annual, 1-5 years, 1- 6 months, daily, weekly, and monthly).3. The sales forecasting time interval generally coincides with how often the plan is updated (i.e., daily, weekly, monthly, and quarterly).
Demand Planning Systems:
The systems that assist in the process of identifying, aggregating, and prioritizing, all sources of demand for the integrated supply chain of a product or service at the appropriate level, horizon and interval.
Demand Pull:
The concept defined in lean theory which triggers production of materials only upon receipt of an actual customer order and aligns the production capacity of the supply chain to external customer demand patterns.
Demand Shaping:
Using programs, including price, new product launch, trade and sales incentives, promotions, and marketing programs, to increase what customers want to buy.
Demand Sensing:
Using channel data to reduce latency in sensing customer buying trends.
Demand Signal:
A signal from a consumer, customer or using operation that triggers the issue of product or raw material. The demand signal is most efficiently an electronic data transmission, but could be a physical document, kanban or telephone call.
Demand-Side Analysis:
A system based on economic, geographic and demographic trends, offering planners an opportunity to gain accurate perspective on future demand for products or services.
Demand Supply Balancing:
The process of identifying and measuring the gaps and imbalances between demand and resources in order to determine how to best resolve the variances through marketing, pricing, packaging, warehousing, outsource plans or some other action that will optimize service, flexibility, costs, assets (or other supply chain inconsistencies) in an iterative and collaborative environment.
Demand Time Fence (DTF):
A feature of MRP type systems which allows for defining the point in time from the current date where all forecasted orders should be discarded in favor of actual customer orders. There may be a blend of actual and forecast orders beyond the time fence. See: Consuming the Forecast, Planning Time Fence, Time Fence.
Deming Circle:
An iterative four-step problem-solving process typically used in business process improvement. It is also known as the Shewhart cycle, Deming Wheel, or Plan-Do-Study-Act. Also see: Plan-Do-Check-Action
Demographic Segmentation:
A market segmentation strategy where the intended audience for a given product is divided according to geographic units, such as nations, states, regions, counties, cities, or neighborhoods.
Refers to the process of going in and taking back assets and harvesting the components and parts. After the components are tested, they may be sold into the secondary market or may be upgraded to "as new" and used in production again.
The carrier charges and fees applied when rail freight cars and ships are retained beyond a specific loading or unloading time.
Denied Party List (DPL):
A listing of all the entities with whom a company cannot do business due to company policy or government requirements. The Export DPL list is based on information supplied by the United States Government Federal Register and other sources.
A physical characteristic of a commodity measuring its mass per unit volume or pounds per cubic foot; an important factor in rate making, since density affects the utilization of a carrier’s vehicle.
Density Rate:
A rate based upon the density and shipment weight.
Department of Energy (DOE):
Cabinet level department in the United States Government, charged with developing energy and safety policies and guidelines regarding the handling of nuclear material within the United States.
Department of Homeland Security (DHS):
Cabinet level department in the United States Government responsible for protecting the United States from terrorist attacks and natural disasters.
A location where a substance is stored usually for later utilization. A Repair Depot is a location/facility where assets are rebuilt or repaired.
Revisions or complete elimination of economic regulations controlling transportation. The Motor Carrier Act of 1980 and the Staggers Act of 1980 revised the economic controls over motor carriers and railroads, and the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978 eliminated economic controls over air carriers.
Derived Demand:
A term in economics, where demand for one good or service occurs as a result of demand for another. This may occur as the former is a part of production of the second. For example, demand for coal leads to derived demand for mining, as coal must be mined for coal to be consumed.
Design for Manufacture / Assembly (DFMA):
A product design methodology that provides a quantitative evaluation of product designs.
Design of Experiments (DoE):
A branch of applied statistics dealing with planning, conducting, analyzing, and interpreting controlled tests to evaluate the factors that control the value of a parameter or group of parameters
Destination-Enhanced Consolidation:
Ganging of smaller shipments to cut cost, often as directed by a system or via pooling with a third party.
Detention Fee:
The carrier charges and fees applied when rail freight cars, ship and carriers are retained beyond a specified loading or unloading time. Also see: Demurrage, Express
Deterministic Models:
Mathematical model in which outcomes are precisely determined through known relationships among states and events, without any room for random variation. In such models, a given input will always produce the same output, such as in a known chemical reaction. In comparison, stochastic models use ranges of values for variables in the form of probability distributions.
See: Design for Manufacture/ Assembly
See: Duty Free Zone
See: Defective Goods Inventory
See: Department of Homeland Security
Dial Up:
Access a network by dialing a phone number or initiating a computer to dial the number. The dial-up line connects to the network access point via a node or a PAD.
A discount offered by a carrier that faces a service time disadvantage over a route.
In the postponement supply chain model, this is the point where an end product assumes unique characteristics through final assembly configuration and/or packaging.
Digital Signature:
Electronically generated, digitized (as opposed to graphically created) authorization that is uniquely linkable and traceable to an empowered officer.
Direct Channel:
Your own sales force sells to the customer. Your entity may ship to the customer, or a third party may handle shipment, but in either case your entity owns the sales contract and retains rights to the receivable from the customer. Your end customer may be a retail outlet. The movement to the customer may be direct from the factory, or the product may move through a distribution network owned by your company. Order information in this channel may be transmitted by electronic means.
Direct Cost:
A cost that can be directly traced to a cost object since a direct or repeatable cause-and-effect relationship exists. A direct cost uses a direct assignment or cost causal relationship to transfer costs. Direct costs can consist of materials used and labor directly involved in production. Also see: Indirect Cost, Tracing
Direct Debit (DD):
A method of ACH collection used where the debtor gives authorization to debit his or her account upon the receipt of an entry issued by a creditor. See: Automated Clearinghouse
Direct Product Profitability (DPP):
Calculation of the net profit contribution attributable to a specific product or product line.
Direct Production Material:
Material that is used in the manufacturing/content of a product (example: Purchased parts, solder, SMT glues, adhesives, mechanical parts etc. Bill-of-Materials parts, etc.)
Direct Retail Locations:
A retail location that purchases products directly from your organization or responding entity.
Direct Store Delivery (DSD):
Process of shipping direct from a manufacturer’s plant or distribution center to the customer’s retail store, thus bypassing the customer’s distribution center. Also called Direct-to-Store Delivery
Direct Transmission:
A transmission whereby data is exchanged directly between sender and receiver computers, without an intervening third-party service. Also called a point-to-point transmission.
Direct-to-Store (DTS) Delivery:
Same as Direct Store Delivery.
Directed Tasks:
Tasks that can be completed based upon detailed information provided by the computer system. An order picking task where the computer details the specific item, location, and quantity to pick is an example of a directed task. If the computer could not specify the location and quantity forcing the worker to choose locations or change quantities, it would not be a directed task. Directed tasks set up the opportunity for confirmation transactions.
See: Data Interchange Standards Association.
Disaster Recovery Planning:
Contingency planning specifically related to recovering hardware and software (e.g. data centers, application software, operations, personnel, and telecommunications) during information system outages.
Discontinuous Demand:
A demand pattern that is characterized by large demands interrupted by periods with no demand, as opposed to a continuous or steady (e.g., daily) demand. Synonym: Lumpy Demand.
Discrete Manufacturing:
Discrete manufacturing processes create products by assembling unconnected distinct parts as in the production of distinct items such as automobiles, appliances, or computers.
Discrete Order Picking:
An order picking method where each individual order is picked, line by line, prior to beginning picking of another order. Also see: Batch Picking, Order Picking, Zone Picking
Discrete Order Quantity:
A production planning technique that generates planned orders in quantities equal to the net customer order requirements in each period. See: Lot-for-Lot
When the traditional sales channels are disassembled and the middleman gets cut out of the deal. Such as where the manufacturer ships direct to a retailer, bypassing the distributor.
The carrier activities involved with controlling equipment; involves arranging for fuel, drivers, crews, equipment, and terminal space.
Distributed Inventory:
Inventory that is geographically dispersed. For example, where a company maintains inventory in multiple distribution centers to provide a higher level of customer service.
The activities associated with moving materials from source to destination. Can be associated with movement from a manufacturer or distributor to customers, retailers or other secondary warehousing / distribution points.
Distribution Center (DC):
The warehouse facility which holds inventory from manufacturing pending distribution to the appropriate stores.
Distribution Channel:
One or more companies or individuals who participate in the flow of goods and services from the manufacturer to the final user or consumer.
Distribution Channel Management:
The organizational and pipeline strategy for getting products to customers. Direct channels involve company sales forces, facilities, and/or direct shipments to customers. Indirect channels involve the use of wholesalers, distributors, and/or other parties to supply the products to customers. Many companies use both strategies, depending on markets and effectiveness.
Distribution On Demand (DOD):
The order fulfillment state a distribution operation achieves when it can respond, closest to real time, to changes in demand while shipping 100 percent customer compliant orders at the least cost.
Distribution Planning:
The process involved in planning for distribution activities. Activities may include inbound / outbound transportation, warehouse management, setting inventory levels, putaway and picking, packaging and loading, and various administrative functions.
Distribution Requirements Planning (DRP):
A system of determining demands for inventory at distribution centers and consolidating demand information in reverse as input to the production and materials system.
Distribution Resource Planning (DRP II):
A computerized system that integrates distribution with manufacturing by identifying requirements for finished goods and producing schedules for inventory and its movement within the distribution process. Distribution resource planning systems receive data on sales forecasts, customer order and delivery requirements, available inventory, logistics, and manufacturing and purchasing lead times. This data is analyzed to produce a time-phased schedule of resource requirements that is matched against existing supply sources and production schedules to identify the actions that must be taken to synchronize supply and demand.
Distribution Warehouse:
A warehouse that stores finished goods and from which customer orders are assembled.
A business that does not manufacture its own products, but purchases and resells these products. Such a business usually maintains a finished goods inventory. Synonym: Wholesaler.
The practice of selling goods to a competitor that the vendor assumes would be used to service that Customer's store. Example; Grocery Store Chain A buys orange juice from Minute Maid. Grocery Store Chain A, because of their sales volume or because of promotion, can buy product for $12.50 per case. Grocery Store Chain B, because of a lower sales volume, buys the same orange juice for $14.50 per case. Grocery Store Chain A and Grocery Store Chain B get together and make a deal. Grocery Store Chain A resells that product to Grocery Store Chain B for $13.50 per case. Grocery Store Chain A makes $1.00 per case and Grocery Store Chain B gets product for $1.00 less per case than it can buy from Minute Maid.
An aspect of a company's social responsibility program related to the use of all people in the workplace, regardless of ethnicity, gender, age, religion, disability, national origin and sexual orientation.
An acronym used by Six Sigma practioners to remind them of the steps in a Six Sigma improvement project - Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control.
DMZ Separation:
Demilitarized zones (DMZ) act as buffers between a trusted network (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition or SCADA network) and the corporate network or Internet—separated through additional firewalls and routers—which provide an extra layer of security against cyber attacks. Utilizing DMZ buffers is becoming an increasingly common method to segregate business applications from the SCADA network and is a highly recommended additional security measure. A DMZ is sometimes called a “Perimeter network” or a “Three-homed perimeter network.” SI Security, a leading intelligence security company, defines a DMZ as: “a network added between a protected network and an external network in order to provide an additional layer of security.”
A practice where pre-qualified product is received into inventory, eliminating the normal receiving and inspection handling involved. Also, a warehouse metric used to benchmark the amount of time required to perform the processes associated with getting received items into storage.
Dock-to-Stock Cycle Time:
The elapsed time beginning with the delivery of goods from the supplier and ends when those goods are put away in the warehouse and recorded into the inventory management system
In EDI, a form, such as an invoice or a purchase order, that trading partners have agreed to exchange and that the EDI software handles within its compliance-checking logic.
See: Dead on Arrival
Dock receipt:
A receipt that indicates an export shipment has been delivered to a steamship company by a domestic carrier.
The papers attached or pertaining to goods requiring transportation and/or transfer of ownership. These may include the packing list, hazardous materials declarations, export / customs documents, etc.
See: Distribution on Demand
Department of Defense Directive.
Department of Defense Instruction.
See: Design of Experiments, Department of Energy
A computer term for the following: 1) Highest subdivision of the Internet, for the most part by country (except in the U.S., where it's by type of organization, such as educational, commercial, and government). Usually the last part of a host name; for example, the domain part of ibm.com is .com, which represents the domain of commercial sites in the U.S. 2) In corporate data networks, a group of client computers controlled by a server system.
Domestic Trunk Line Carrier:
An air carrier classification for carriers that operate between major population centers. These carriers are now classified as major carriers.
Dormant Route:
A route over which a carrier failed to provide service 5 days a week for 13 weeks out of a 26-week period.
Double Bottoms:
A motor carrier operation involving two trailers being pulled by one tractor.
Double Order Point System:
An inventory management system that has two order points, one which includes the normal demand expected during the replenishment cycle, and the second being associated with demand expected during the manufacturing process. The goal is to enable facilities in a distribution network to alert a central warehouse or manufacturing of future replenishment orders.
Double-Pallet Jack:
A mechanized device for transporting two standard pallets simultaneously.
Double Stack:
Two containers, one on top of the other, loaded on a railroad flatcar; an intermodal service.
To merge temporary files containing a day’s or week’s worth of information with the main data base in order to update it.
Downside Flex Agreement:
This is a flexibility agreement with a supplier where the upside and down side are negotiated in advance for lead-time, cost, etc.
Referring to the demand side of the supply chain. One or more companies or individuals who participate in the flow of goods and services moving from the manufacturer to the final user or consumer. Opposite of Upstream.
See: Dynamic Process Control
See: Denied Party List
See: Days Payable Outstanding
See: Direct product profitability
Transportation of materials and freight on a local basis, but intermodal freight carriage may also be referred to as drayage.
Driving Time Regulations:
Rules administered by the U.S. Department of Transportation that limit the maximum time a driver may drive in interstate commerce; both daily and weekly maximums are prescribed.
A situation in which an equipment operator deposits a trailer or boxcar at a facility at which it is to be loaded or unloaded.
Drop and Hook:
An arrangement among shipper, carrier and consignee whereby the carrier leaves a trailer filled with freight at a destination and hooks up and hauls away an empty trailer.
Drop Trailers:
Trailers that are unhooked from a tractor when the truck reaches its destinations
Drop Yard:
Temporary “parking lots” for containers or cargo, located off the wharves and sometimes next to rail yards or import warehouses.
Drop Ship:
A customer fulfillment strategy where products are shipped directly from the manufacturer or distributor to a customer bypassing the retail or secondary distribution location. Intended to expedite delivery and reduce handling costs. Billing transactions occur in the normal manner, only the material flow is altered.
See: Disaster Recovery Planning
See: Distribution Requirements Planning
See: Distribution Resources Planning
Drum-Buffer-Rope (DBR):
A manufacturing execution methodology, named for its three components. The drum is the physical constraint of the plant: the work center or machine or operation that limits the ability of the entire system to produce more. The rest of the plant follows the beat of the drum. They make sure the drum has work and that anything the drum has processed does not get wasted. See: Finite Scheduling
See: Direct Store Delivery
See: Days Sales Outstanding
See: Decision Support System
See: Demand Time Fence
See: Direct Store Delivery
Dual Operation:
A motor carrier that has both common and contract carrier operating authority.
Dual rate system:
An international water carrier pricing system where a shipper signing an exclusive use agreement with the conference pays a lower rate (10% to %15) than non-signing shippers for an identical shipment.
The act of selling goods below costs in selected markets in an effort to gain market share or eliminate competition.
The materials used in packaging, holds and containers to protect goods from damage.
DUNS Number:
A unique nine-digit number assigned by Dun and Bradstreet to identify a company. DUNS stands for Data Universal Numbering System.
Data Universal Numbering System.
Duty Free Zone (DFZ):
An area where goods or cargo can be stored without paying import customs duties while awaiting manufacturing or future transport.
Durable Goods:
A good which does not quickly wear out, or more specifically, it yields services or utility over time (typically 3 years or more) rather than being completely used up when used once.
Dwell Time:
The period of time during which a dynamic process is halted in order for another process to occur.
Dynamic Lot Sizing:
A lot-sizing technique where the order quantity subject to continuous re-computation to take into account that demand for the product varies over time. See: Least Total Cost, Least Unit Cost, Part Period Balancing, Period Order Quantity, Wagner-Whitin Algorithm.
Dynamic Process Control (DPC):
Continuous monitoring of process performance and adjustment of control parameters to optimize process output.
Dynamic Rescheduling:
A functional capability of resource planning and operations management systems which provides the ability to reschedule activities “on the fly” in the event of a change in one of the factors affecting the schedule—such as a late shipment or equipment failure.