JUPITER HAMMON

An Evening Thought. Salvation by Christ, with Penetential Cries.
Composed the 25th of December, 1760. [Porter, Heath, Carretta]
An Address to Miss Phillis Wheatly, Ethiopian Poetess, in Boston, who came from Africa at eight years of age, and soon became acquainted with the Gospel of Jesus Christ. August 4, 1778.[Porter, Heath, Carretta]
A winter piece:  Being a serious exhortation, with a call to the unconverted: and a short contemplation on the death of Jesus Christ. 1782.
An evening's improvement: Shewing, the necessity of beholding the Lamb of God. To which is added, a dialogue, entitled, The kind master and dutiful servant. 1783.
An Address to the Negroes In the State of New York. 1787. [Porter]

  • O'Neale, Sondra. Jupiter Hammon and the Biblical Beginnings of African-American Literature. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1993.
  • Peters, Erskine. "Jupiter Hammon: His Engagement with Interpretation." Journal of Ethnic Studies 8: 4 (1981) 1-12. 
  • Richards, Phillip M. "Nationalist Themes in the Preaching of Jupiter Hammon." Early American Literature 25.2 (1990): 123-138. 
  • Johnson, Lonnell E.  "Dilemma of the Dutiful Servant: The Poetry of Jupiter Hammon."  Language and Literature in the African American Imagination. Westport, CT. 1992. 105-17.
  • Ransom, Stanley A., Jr; Wegelin, Oscar; Loggins, Vernon. America's First Negro Poet: The Complete Works of Jupiter Hammon of Long Island. Port Washington, N.Y.: Kennikat Press, 1970.


LEMUEL HAYNES

"Liberty Further Extended: Or Free Thoughts on the Illegality of Slave keeping."  [Heath]
"Universal Salvation: A Very Ancient Doctrine." 1805.  [Porter, Heath]

  • Black Preacher to White America: The Collected Writings of Lemuel Haynes, 1774-1833. Ed. Richard Newman. 1990.
  • Bogin, Ruth. "The Battle of Lexington': A Patriotic Ballad by Lemuel Haynes." The William and Mary Quarterly 72.4 (October 1985): 499-509.
  • Newman, Richard. Lemuel Haynes : a Bio-Bibliography.  New York: Lambeth Press, 1984.
  • Saillant, John. "Remarkably Emancipated from Bondage, Slavery, and Death': An African American Retelling of the Puritan Captivity Narrative, 1820." Early American Literature 29.2 (1994): 122-40.


JOHN MARRANT

A Narrative of the Lord's Wonderful Dealings with John Marrant, A Black (Now Going to Preach the Gospel in Nova Scotia).
1785. [Potkay and Burr, Porter, Carretta]
A Sermon Preached on the 24th Day of June 1789, Being the Festival of Saint John the Baptists, at the Request of the Right Worshipful the Grand Master Prince Hall, and the Rest of the Brethren of the African Lodge of the Honorable Society of Free and Accepted Masons in Boston. [Potkay and Burr]
The Journal of John Marrant. London. 1790.

  • Montgomery, Benilde. "Recapturing John Marrant." In A Mixed Race: Ethnicity in Early America. Ed. Frank Shuffleton. Oxford:  Oxford University Press. 105-115. 1993.
  • Saillant, John.  "Explaining Syncretism in African-American Views of Death: An Eighteenth Century Example." Culture & Tradition 17 (1995): 25-41.
  • Zafar, Rafia.  "Capturing the Captivity: African Americans among the Puritans."  MELUS 17.2 (Summer 1991-1992): 19-35.

EARLY
AFRICAN- AMERICAN LITERATURE
TEACHING
RESOURCES

OLAUDAH EQUIANO
UKAWSAW GRONNIOSAW
PRINCE HALL
BRITON HAMMON


JUPITER HAMMON
LEMUEL HAYNES
JOHN MARRANT


VENTURE SMITH
LUCY TERRY
PHILLIS WHEATLEY


GENERAL RESOURCES
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Compiled by
Joanna Brooks
Department of English
University of California,
Los Angeles