Professors. Henri J. Barkey, Interim Chair, Ph.D. (Pennsylvania), Bernard L. and Bertha F. Cohen Professor; John Martin Gillroy, Ph.D. (Chicago); Rajan Menon, Ph.D. (Illinois); Bruce E. Moon, Ph.D. (Ohio State).
Associate professors. Chaim D. Kaufmann, Ph.D. (Columbia); Kevin Narizny, Ph.D. (Princeton).
Assistant professor. Arman Grigoryan, Ph.D. (Columbia).
Emeritus professors. Rajan Menon, Ph.D. (Illinois), Zdenek J. Slouka, Ph.D. (Columbia), Oles M. Smolansky, Ph.D. (Columbia).
Today's world is more interconnected than ever before: what happens “here” affects what happens “there,” and vice versa. The economic fortunes of countries, firms, and individuals have become so sensitive to trade, monetary, and investment decisions made elsewhere that economic policy that is purely national has become all but impossible. Nuclear weapons, which can kill thousands in minutes, do not respect international boundaries; neither do the consequences of ethnic and communal conflicts. Non-state actors, from terrorists to human rights activists, also act across boundaries. The Internet has made it easier than ever to form networks and political movements that span borders. Climate everywhere is affected by environmental decisions anywhere. In the 21st century, no state – not even the United States, though it has become the first sole superpower in the history of the modern international system– and no citizen can make important choices in a sound manner without understanding how their decisions are shaped by what happens outside the boundaries of their homeland; moreover, their decisions often affect people who live far beyond those borders.
International Relations (IR) is the study of world politics in all of its aspects: International security covers issues related to war and peace, among and within societies. International political economy focuses on the political dimensions of trade, investment, development, and poverty. International law, organizations, and ethics and norms involve the study of how legal principles and agreements and moral values contribute to the creation of order, create the basis for stable expectations, and regulate transactions among states and other participants in world affairs. IR theory exposes students to the major explanatory frameworks that have been developed for the study of international relations.
IR investigates the gamut of economic, technological, social, and cultural and military forces that create the increasing interdependence that we call “globalization.” IR examines the ways in which globalization and other factors have sometimes contributed to creation of order but also often to breakdown of order, violence among and within states, and the assertions of particularity, whether based on ethnicity, nationalism, or differences in culture, or wealth. Much of IR is devoted to explaining the behavior of states, but IR also encompasses many entities besides sovereign states. These include international organizations (such as the United Nations and its affiliate organizations); nongovernmental organizations; and intergovernmental organizations, such as the World Trade Organization, the European Union, the African Union, or Mercosur, the Latin American trading bloc.
Lehigh University has one of the few Departments of International Relations in the United States. At Lehigh, world politics is not considered simply a division of the discipline of political science. The IR Department is therefore able to offer a concentrated and multifaceted program, and one that is truly interdisciplinary. Some IR faculty study world politics as scholars of particular geographic regions, others as theorists seeking to explain the major processes of world politics regardless of where and when they occur: for instance, the causes and consequences of different forms of warfare; the rise and decline of empires; the challenges posed by environmental degradation; and the forces that create both wealth and poverty. What we share is the dedication to teaching and scholarship and the commitment to encouraging our students to engage new ideas and to subject familiar ones to thorough scrutiny.
Judging by the number of students who choose IR as their major, it is one of the most popular disciplines at Lehigh. Moreover, as befits a field that cuts across so many disciplines, we draw students who also pursue coursework, or minors, or “double majors” in fields ranging from Religion Studies, Modern Languages and Literatures, Economics, and History, to Computer Science, Biology, Engineering, and Environmental Policy.
The Curriculum: Students considering course work in international relations are strongly encouraged to visit the International Relations web site (http://cas.lehigh.edu/ir). Prospective International Relations majors should enroll in IR 10 and ECO 1 as early as possible. We recommend that IR majors fulfill the mathematics portion of their college distribution requirement with Math 12 (Basic Statistics), although this course is not required for the major.
Major in International Relations
The major consists of eleven courses for a total of 44 credits. This is the minimum requirement, however, and we strongly urge students to enrich their educations by going further. The courses required are:
Introductory courses (two courses, 8 credits)
IR 10 Introduction to World Politics (4)
Eco 1 Principles of Economics (4)
Core courses (four courses, one from each functional group, 16 credits)
International Relations Theory
IR 105. Theories of International Relations (4)
International Political Economy
IR 125. International Political Economy (4) or IR 120. Globalization and World Politics (4)
International Security Studies
IR 234. Great Power Politics (4) or IR 235. International Security (4)
IR 142. International Law (4) or IR 245. International Organization (4)
Advanced courses (two courses, 8 credits)
Any IR courses numbered 301-387 (except 307) or 393.
Electives (12 credits)
Any IR courses other than IR 19, 90, 300, 388 or 391. Core or advanced courses beyond the minimum requirements may be counted as electives. Certain courses offered by other departments may also qualify. See the Department of International Relations for a complete list.
To graduate with Departmental honors, a major in international relations must:
successfully complete a two semester honors thesis (IR 388) in the senior year;
attain a GPA of at least 3.5 in the courses constituting the IR major program at the time of graduation. See department website for additional information.
Minor in International Relations
The minor consists of 16 credits: IR 10, one advanced IR elective numbered 301-387(except 307) or 393, and 8 credits of free IR electives other than IR 19, 90, 300 or 391.
Joint International Relations/Modern Languages and Literatures Major
Program directors: Chairs of IR Department and MLL Department.
The multidisciplinary Joint IR/MLL Major is offered jointly by the Department of International Relations (IR) and the Department of Modern Languages and Literatures (MLL). The program, which offers a Bachelor of Arts, incorporates courses from both IR and MLL, as well as electives from a broad cross-section of other departments, for a challenging program that requires overseas study, language facility, and undergraduate research.
The Joint IR/MLL Major recognizes that Lehigh graduates must be adequately prepared to play and active role in the world of the 21st century. For that, they will need an acute understanding of essential issues of global politics, broad linguistic and cultural skills, significant overseas experience, and both intellectual and cultural sophistication. The Joint IR/MLL Major meets those requirements with courses in economics, international relations, language, and culture. Extended study abroad and undergraduate research in more than one language are also required. The program will help students develop a deeper and richer understanding of cultural, linguistic, and political diversity around the world.
The program requires a total of 16 courses for 60-64 credits. At least one semester of study abroad in an approved Lehigh program is required, as is undergraduate research that uses sources in at least one language other than English. Each student will have two major advisors, one each from IR and MLL.
Required courses (50-52 credits), as follows:
5 courses in International Relations (20 credits), as follows:
Two IR advanced courses numbered 301-387 (except 307) or 393
6 courses in Modern Languages and Literatures (22-24 credits), as follows:
Four courses (16 credits) in one language, either Arabic, Chinese, Hebrew, Japanese, Russian, French (above the level of Spanish 2)
Two culture courses (6-8 credits) from an approved list or in consultation with the MLL advisor
1 independent study (4 credits). The course will include original research in at least one foreign language.
Study abroad. 1 semester or more in an approved Lehigh program.
Electives (10-12 credits), as follows:
3 electives from an approved list, including courses from the departments of Sociology and Anthropology, Economics, English, International Relations, Journalism, Modern Languages and Literatures, Political Science, History, Religion, and/or programs in Africana Studies, Asian Studies, Global Citizenship, Latin American Studies, Sociology and Social Psychology, Science, Technology and Society, Women's Studies, or other courses as approved by IR and MLL advisors. (Courses must be chosen from at least two departments.)
Minor in International Environmental Policy
The Minor consists of 20 credits: IR 10, one advanced IR elective numbered 301-387(except 307) and 393, and 16 credits of electives (including one advanced course) to be taken from a list of approved eligible courses within the Department of International Relations.
Beyond the IR Curriculum: In close cooperation with the international education office, the department assists students interested in study abroad programs. In addition, Lehigh has an array of summer programs, which involve course work and/or internships in such countries as China, the Czech Republic and the United Kingdom.
Every semester speakers with expertise on various aspects of world affairs visit Lehigh. Some of the featured speakers in the past were Dr. Shashi Tharoor, the U.N. Under-Secretary-General for Communications and Public Information; Dr. Ernesto Zedillo, Former president of Mexico and Director of the Yale Center for the Study of Globalization; and Retired General Anthony Zinni, 40 Year Marine Corps Veteran and U.S. Peace Envoy to the Middle East.
The student-run World Affairs Club sponsors a number of activities each year, including student-faculty socials, guest speakers and related programs. It organizes the Model United Nations program to which Lehigh sends a delegation each year. From time to time, delegations are also sent to other student conferences, including West Point and the U.S. Naval Academy.
The department has an active program in conjunction with Career Services to help place students in internships. We strongly encourage students to obtain an internship. Most of these internships are likely to be in New York or Washington, D.C.
Upon Graduating: While a degree in international relations does not lead to a specific career in the way that, for example, accounting or engineering does, a major in international relations, by emphasizing clarity in speech and writing, analytical skills, and a detailed knowledge of world politics prepares students for careers in government, journalism, law, nongovernmental organizations, international business, and teaching and research. Recent IR graduates currently work in all of these fields. Some have gone directly into careers upon graduating; others have enrolled in graduate school prior to employment.
IR 10. Introduction to World Politics (4)
Introduction to the major principles, concepts, and theories of international relations, along with a historical background focusing on the 19th and 20th centuries. Topics to be covered include the nature of power, balance of power theories, national interest, decision-making in foreign policy, theories of war and expansion, patterns of Cooperation, and international political economy. Staff (SS)
IR 19. Current Issues in World Affairs (3)
This is a survey course designed primarily for non-IR majors or minors. The purpose is to acquaint students with some of the concepts and historical facts behind current global issues. The content of this course will, in part, be dictated by international events as they unfold. Staff (SS)
IR 34. Society, Technology and War (4)
This course explores the links between war and society in both directions: the impact of social, economic, and technological change on how wars are fought and the purposes for which they can be fought; as well as the impact of war mobilization needs and of war itself on how societies develop, including the rise of capitalism, democratization, economic planning and other modern institutions, and emancipation of disadvantaged groups in society, such as blacks and women in the United States. The American and French revolutions; the Civil War; World Wars I and II; Vietnam; Afghanistan and Iraq; the law of war; war propaganda; atrocities; the nuclear and information revolutions; the ongoing “revolution in military affairs;” and current trends in the status of military institutions in advanced societies. Kaufmann (SS)
IR 36. International Terrorism (4)
Have we seen the peak of global terrorism, or is the worst still to come? This course examines psychological, religious, and political explanations of terrorism; legal and moral statuses of terrorism; explanations for the increasing scale of terrorism and the more frequent targeting of Americans; major terrorist organizations, structures, and means of operation; suicide terrorism; threats and vulnerabilities facing the United States and Western countries today; means of coping with terrorism as an individual and through national policy; possible future developments. Kaufmann (SS)
IR 56. European International Relations (4)
Examines the evolution of the modern states system in Europe. Conceptual, theoretical and historical topics include the transition from feudalism to the Westphalian system, nationalism, imperialism, the causes of war and attempted peace settlements, the Cold War, the European Union, and the impact of the collapse of the USSR on the political and strategic structure of Europe. Staff (SS)
IR 61. (ASIA 61) Pacific Asian International Relations (4)
Introduction to Pacific Asian international relations, with emphasis on post-1945 period: historical background; Cold War conflicts; China's rise to power; Japan's growing role; Korea and the NIC's; Southeast Asia; U.S. and Russian policies; current and future issues. Staff (SS)
IR 72. The United States in the Global Economy (4)
Political problems and policy issues arising out of the economic relations between the U.S. and the rest of the world. U.S. foreign economic policy. decision-making processes and political influences on policy. Economic diplomacy. Declining U.S. economic preeminence. Moon (SS)
IR 74. United States Foreign Policy (4)
Addresses major themes and trends in U.S. foreign policy, including its historical evolution. Assesses the interests and values that underlie the goals of policy and the beliefs that shape decisions on how to achieve those goals. Also examines issues such as the constitutional division of authority, bureaucratic politics and processes, civil-military relations, and public opinion. Narizny (SS)
IR 82. Middle East in World Affairs Since 1945 (4)
Rise of Turkish, Iranian, and Arab nationalism; creation of Israel; decline of British and French power; growth of U.S. and Soviet influence; Middle East as the world's major oil producer. Staff (SS)
IR 104 (ES 104). Political and Environmental Geography (4)
Geographic foundations of political phenomena and human impacts on the environment. Global focus on geographic influences on growth and development of states and empires, the nature and impacts of borders, how people have altered patterns of climate, hydrology, land forms, soils, and biota. Staff (SS)
IR 105. Theories of International Relations (4)
The role of theory in historical explanation, prediction, and policy. Issues of theory design and testing. Important theoretical approaches to international relations, including Realism; the Democratic Peace; the domestic politics of foreign policy; history and mythmaking; psychological explanations. Prerequisite: IR 10. Staff (SS)
IR 118. Issues in International Relations (1-4)
Readings on selected themes in world politics, with theme to change each semester. Offered on an occasional basis only. Staff (SS)
IR 119. Issues in International Relations (1-4)
Readings on selected themes in world politics, with theme to change each semester. Offered on an occasional basis only. Staff (SS)
IR 120. Globalization and World Politics (4)
An exploration of the economic, political, cultural, and military manifestations of globalization and the effects on the internal order of states and the relations among them. Prerequisite: IR 10. Barkey (SS)
IR 123. Evolution of International Order (4)
Evaluates competing explanations for the origins of the modern states system, the development of capitalism, the rise of the West, and the nature of international order in non-Western subsystems. Narizny (SS)
IR 125. (POLS 125) International Political Economy (4)
Principles governing the interaction between the economic and political components of international phenomena. Political causes and consequences of trade and investment. Foreign economic policy and its relationship to domestic economic policy and other aspects of foreign policy. Determinants of foreign economic policy. Prerequisites: Eco 1 and IR 10. Moon (SS)
IR 127. Research in International Relations (4)
Research skills in international relations. The role of theory, models and evidence in the explanation of international phenomena. Literature review; problem formulation; theory construction; research design, methods and measures; collection, analysis and interpretation of data; principles of hypothesis testing. Professional writing, either through individual research projects under faculty supervision or an apprenticeship in ongoing faculty research projects. Prerequisite: Consent of the instructor. Moon (SS)
IR 132. Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict (4)
The ideal of nationalism exerts a powerful pull on almost all people everywhere. This course investigates the sources, spread, and possible future decline of nationalism and national identity, the manipulation of nationalist feelings for political purposes, and the sources of national and ethnic conflict. We will also consider proposals for managing ethnic conflicts and their records of success (or failure). We will study recent and current cases, such as the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, ethnic relations in Iraq and Afghanistan, the Balkans, or others as current events demand. Prospects for the futures of nationalism, ethnic conflict, and ethnic conflict management. Simulations of decision-making of groups involved in ethnic conflicts. Kaufmann (SS)
IR 140. The United Nations (4)
Provides overview of key issues and debates in the United Nations and helps students understand the formal and informal operations of this global organization. We will explore two major questions. First, what are the major obstacles to effective international cooperation in the United Nations? Second, what does globalization mean for UN efforts to promote democracy, development, and human rights? Includes a trip to UN Headquarters in NY and an in-class UN simulation exercise. Prerequisite: IR 10. Staff (SS)
IR 142. International Law (4)
This course deals with the nature and sources of international law and the major theoretical and historical developments that have created the legal system of states as it now stands. Topics include: armed conflict, international trade, human rights and international environmental law. Prerequisite: IR 10. Gillroy (SS)
IR 143. (ES 143). Comparative Environmental Law & Policy (4)
This course will analyze both comparative legal systems and comparative domestic schemes of environmental regulation exploring the range of alternatives for environmental law and policy as practiced in various parts of the world. Gillroy (SS)
IR 161. (ASIA 161) China in World Affairs (4)
China in world affairs, emphasizing role in Pacific Rim: historical background; domestic politics; foreign and security policies; relations with regional and global powers; policies toward Asia and Third World; current and future issues. Staff (SS)
IR 163. (ASIA 163) Japan in World Affairs (4)
Japan in world affairs, emphasizing role in Pacific Rim: historical background; domestic politics; foreign and security policies; relations with regional and global powers; policies toward Asia and Third World; current and future issues. Staff (SS)
IR 169. International Relations of Russia and Eastern Europe (4)
The Soviet collapse and the emergence of Russia. Russia's relations with the other newly independent states that emerged following the disintegration of the Soviet Union. The international relations of Eastern Europe (including the Balkans). Staff (SS)
IR 177. International Relations of Latin America (4)
Survey of major international and domestic crises facing Central and South America. Examines factors affecting Latin American system of states such as international debt, involvement of foreign powers, and social and political instabilities. Barkey (SS)
IR 222. Political Economy of North-South Relations (4)
Political economy of relations between developed and less developed countries. Issues arising from trade, investment, and foreign aid. Consequences of North-South transactions. Controversies over system structure and reform proposals for international institutions (e.g.World Bank, IMF, WTO). Prerequisite: IR 125 or permission of instructor. Moon (SS)
IR 234. Great Power Politics (4)
Overview of the dynamics of strategic interaction between great powers, including the causes of conflict, origins of alliances, logic of coercion, sources of order, and definition of national interests. Focus on the interwar period (multi-polarity), the Cold War (bio-polarity), and the post-Cold War period (uni-polarity). Prerequisite: IR 10. Narizny (SS)
IR 235. International Security (4)
Explanations of international wars, civil wars, genocides, and terrorism. Arms races, escalation, and conflict resolution. The nuclear revolution and ballistic missile defense. Tools of national grand strategy, including alliances, deterrence, coercion, and institutions and norms. Current issues and near future prospects. Case studies. Prerequisite: IR 10. Kaufmann (SS)
IR 245. International Organization (4)
Examines how cooperation is achieved and sustained in world politics. Under what circumstances does cooperation take place? What role do formal international organizations play? What is the relative importance of power, ideas, and economic interests? Pursues questions theoretically and in practical terms across topical issues (e.g., humanitarian intervention, environmental protection). Prerequisite: IR 10. Narizny (SS)
IR 246. (GS 246, JOUR 246) International Communication (4)
Lule (SS) See description under Journalism.
IR 302. Rise and Decline of Empires (4)
An overview of the expansion, overextension, and collapse of empires. Focus on alternative theories of empires as well as historical cases. Prerequisite: IR 10 and department permission. Staff (SS)
IR 307. International Social Entrepreneurship Practicum (4)
International social entrepreneurship aims to change the world through innovation in solving social problems. Focus on the nexus between social entrepreneurship and development practice, especially in relation to NGOs. Emphasis on acquiring the tools to launch social ventures through field work and team-oriented learning by doing. Best practices in field methods for development projects in poor countries. Developing innovative ideas for poverty reduction into concrete on-ground start-up plans, and taking initial steps to implement and evaluate them. Instructor(s) permission. Doesnotmeet the advanced seminar core requirement. Moon and Watkins (SS)
IR 321. Economic Relations of Advanced Industrial Societies (4)
Foreign economic policies of advanced industrial nations. Bilateral and multilateral economic relations; international economic regimes and institutions; interdependence and Cooperation; managing conflict. Prerequisite: IR 125 and department permission. Moon (SS)
IR 322. Poverty and Development (4)
Patterns and causes of poverty in poor countries. Diagnosis of development problems and evaluation of development planning. Explanations for choices of development policy, especially issues of trade, foreign aid, and foreign direct investment. Written and oral presentation of individual country research. Corequisite: IR 222 and instructor permission. Moon (SS)
IR 323. Political Economy of Newly Industrializing Countries (4)
Issues of development, debt and adjustment in newly industrializing countries. Analysis of the differences between the development strategies adopted in Latin America and East Asia. Explanations for patterns of success and failure. Origins of underdevelopment; the politics of failed development strategies; the challenge of the increasingly competitive world economy and relations with the U.S. and other developed nations. Prerequisite: IR 125 and department permission. Barkey (SS)
IR 333 (ES 333/433). International Environmental Law and Policy (4)
Gillroy (SS) See description under Environmental Studies
IR 334. Prospects for Peace in the 21st Century (4)
Will the 21st century be more or less peaceful than the “terrible 20th?” This course examines: globalization as a force both for and against peace, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, terrorism, nationalism and communal conflict, humanitarian intervention and peacekeeping, climate change and other issues affecting prospects for peace in the near future. We will also consider the special situation of American as the world's sole superpower, choices in U.S. policy between unilateral and multilateral approaches to preserving global and regional peace, and decision-making processes of the U.S. and other important actors. Prerequisites: IR 10 and department permission. Kaufmann (SS)
IR 335. Intervention (4)
Strong states frequently intervene in the affairs of weaker societies. Since 1945, the most frequent intervener has been the United States. International norms cut both ways—sovereignty opposes intervention while an emerging “responsibility to protect” sometimes favors it. This course explores why and by what means states and international organizations intervene and what factors influence the success of interventions. We focus mainly on two types – counterinsurgency and humanitarian intervention – that have been and are likely to remain the most common. Prerequisites: IR 10 and department permission. Kaufmann (SS)
IR 339 (ES 339/ES 439) Global Security and the Environment (4)
Staff (SS) See description under Environmental Studies
IR 340 (ES 340/ES 440). International Environmental and Science Policy (4)
The politics of science behind global climate change, trans-boundary environmental pollution, international regulatory standards, and environmental risk assessment. How international/global science communities operate, how to communicate scientific research across cultures, and how to translate scientific data into international policy. Case studies include climate change, the ozone hole, avian influenza, and HIV/AIDS. Prerequisites: IR 10 and department permission Staff (SS)
IR 343 (ES 343). Comparative Environmental Law & Policy (4)
Gillroy (SS) See description under Environmental Studies
IR 344. International Politics of Oil (4)
Historical influence of oil in international politics and the role it plays today. Focus on differing views of producers, such as Middle Eastern and Latin American states, and consuming nations, largely the economically developed Western states. Department permission required. Prerequisites: IR 10 or Eco 1. Barkey (SS)
IR 345. External Dimensions of Democratization (4)
Interdisciplinary analysis of international and transnational influences on regime transitions. Addresses the role of war, trade, colonial legacies, waves of democratization, socializations, demonstration effects, and international law; the policies of the United States, EU, OAS, UN, World Bank, and NGOs; and the efficacy of different instruments of democracy promotion. Prerequisites: IR 10 and department permission. Narizny. (SS)
IR 346. Contemporary Ethical Dilemmas in World Politics (4)
This course is designed to explore, challenge, and re-conceptualize the boundaries of moral community and ethical responsibility through such current dilemmas in world politics as famine, terrorism, torture, genocide, weapons of mass destruction, organized crime and more. Prerequisites: IR 10 and department permission. Staff (SS)
IR 347. Non-State Actors in a Globalized World (4)
Role of non-state political groups (e.g. international advocacy organizations, multinational corporations, news media, terrorists, etc.) in world affairs. Thematic focus on globalization, the relationship between non-state and state actors, and the implications of non-state actors for the future of world order. Themes explored through past and current events (e.g., the WTO demonstrations, 911, the CNN effect, AIDs, anti-sweatshop campaigns.) Prerequisites: IR 10 and department permission. Staff. (SS)
IR 354. International Relations of the Middle East (4)
Importance of the Middle East in contemporary world politics; strategic location and natural resources as factors affecting interests of the great powers. Interplay of international, regional and internal forces. Prerequisites: IR 10 or 82 and department permission. Staff (SS)
IR 364. (ASIA 364) International Relations of Pacific Asia (4)
Research oriented seminar on contemporary international relations of Pacific Asia. Special emphasis on China, Japan and regional and global powers. Substantial research paper on topic of student's own choice is required. Prerequisite: IR 61 or 161 or 163 or 164 and department permission. Staff (SS)
IR 367. International Relations of Russia and other Post-Soviet States (4)
Analysis of foreign relations of Russia and the other fourteen states that emerged after the collapse of the USSR. Prerequisites: IR 10 or IR 169 and department permission. Staff (SS)
IR 388. Honors Thesis in International Relations (4)
International relations majors with senior standing may undertake an intensive, two-semester project under the direct guidance of a faculty member in the student's special area of interest. Students who successfully complete the thesis and whose GPA in the major at the time of graduation is 3.5 or higher receive Departmental Honors. Department permission required. May be repeated for credit. See the Department or IR website http://cas.lehigh.edu/ir for additional information. Staff. (SS)
IR 390. Readings in International Relations (1-4)
Directed course of readings intended for students with special competence or interest in fields of international relations not fully covered by regular course offerings. May be repeated for credit. Department permission required. Staff (SS)
IR 391. Internship in International Relations (1-4)
Internship in public or private agency. May be repeated for credit. Departmental permission required. Staff (SS)
IR 392. Independent Study (1-4)
This course enables students to work with faculty on individual projects and material not covered by the current course offerings. Department permission required. Staff (SS)
IR 393. Seminar in International Relations (3-4)
Advanced seminar, comparable to other 300level seminars, that focuses on discussion and research on specialized subjects in international relations. Variable subject matter. May be repeated for credit. Junior standing and department permission required. Staff. (SS)
IR 394. Special Topics in International Relations (1-4)
Intensive, research oriented study for students with a special competence or interest in fields of international relations not fully covered by regular course offerings. May be repeated for credit. Department permission required. Staff (SS)